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THE LIBRARY 

THE INSTITUTE OF MEDIAEVAL STUDIES 

TORONTO 

PRESENTED BY 

Rev. A.A* Vaschalde, G.S.B* 



^ \J (^j^-fA^^^^Mj 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

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http://www.archive.org/details/chronicleofjoshuOOjo'sh 



THE CHEONICLE 



OP 



JOSHUA THE STYLITE 



3Lont)on: c. J. CLAY AND SON, 

CAMBKIDGE UNIVEESITY PKESS WAREHOUSE, 
17, Paternoster Row. 




eambriUfic: DEIGHTON, BELL, AND CO. 
%tivm: F. A. BROCKHAUS. 



THE CHRONICLE 



OF 



JOSHUA THE STYLITE 

COMPOSED IN SYRIAC 
A.D. 507, 



WITH A TRANSLATION INTO ENGLISH 
AND NOTES 



BY 



W. WRIGHT, LL.D., 

PROFESSOR OF ARABIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE. 



EDITED FOR THE SYNDICS OF THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 



CAMBRIDGE: 
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 

1882 




NOV 1 9 1942 

V105X 

€"aml)iitrge : 

PRINTED BY C. J. CLAY, M.A. & SON, 
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 



PREFACE. 

I. The Chronicle of Joshua (Via.*-. , Yeshua^ or Jesus) the 
Stylite has been long known to historians in the abridged 

Latin translation of Joseph Simon Assemani (jjU^uuSl), which 

occupies pp. 262 — 283 of the first volume of his Bibliotheca 
Orientalis ; and it is generally acknowledged to be one of the 
most valuable authorities for the period with which it deals*. 
The first complete edition of the Syriac text did not, however, 
appear till 1876, when it was edited for the German Oriental 
Society, with a French translation and many useful notes i*, by 
the well known orientalist the Abbe P. Martin, to whose 
industry scholars are indebted for various important Syriac 
publications. 

That this editio princeps should be faulty in many respects 
was unavoidable, partly from the fact that the editor had only 
a single not very clearly written manuscript for the basis of his 
text, and partly because circumstances prevented him from 
re-collating his copy with the original before putting it to press. 
It was reviewed by Professor Noeldeke of Strassburg in the 
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenldndischen Gesellschaft, Bd xxx, 
pp. 851 — 8, where he proposed many excellent emendations. 
Having read the book through several times with pupils, I sent 

* See, for example, the numerous references to it in Lebeau, Ilistoire du B as- 
Empire, ed. Saint-Martin, t. vii, especially in book xxxviii. 

+ See Abhandlungen fiir die Knndc des Mortjenhinxles herausgcgehen von der 
Deutschen Morgenldndischen Gesellschaft. VI. Band. No. I. Chroniqne de Josiie 
le Stylite icrite vers Van 515, texte et traduction par M. Vabbe Paulin Martin. 



VI PREFACE. 

to Professor Noeldeke a further list of corrections, shortly before 
the publication of his Syriac Grammar in 1880, and we 
exchanged several letters on the subject. Since then another 
friend, Professor Ignazio Guidi of Rome, has most kindly sup- 
plied me with a fresh collation of the entire work ; and I am 
thus enabled to lay a tolerably correct text before the reader, 
without having much recourse to conjectural emendation. If I 
have not described certain readings of my text as corrections 
made by this or that scholar, it is because I have ascertained, 
thanks to Guidi's unwearying kindness, that they are the actual 
readings of the original manuscript. Thus I could not credit 
M. Martin himself with ]L£i\.i.^ (p. 18, 1. 15), and with ]m i l,-;D 
(p. 88, 1. 2) ; nor Professor Noeldeke with VU\ -t^? ^Q^^ 
(p. 48, 1. 6), and with oooi ^i..i.^5 |kiL5 ^5 |j.^Q-D (p. 85, 
1, 1) ; nor Mr Bensly, of Gonville and Caius College, with . > mn 
(p. 3, 1. 13) ; nor my former pupil Mr Keith-Falconer with 
^> i \n (p. 49, 1. 5) ; nor myself with -^lo (p. 29, 1. 13), and 
with OySD*! (p. 34, 1. 8). I have never altered the actual readings 
of the manuscript, so far as I am aware, without giving due 
warning thereof in the notes. I have, however, taken the 
liberty, with the view of facilitating the task of the reader, 
of adding a considerable number of diacritical points, especially 
in the verbal forms. From the interpunction of the manuscript, 
on the other hand, I have but rarely deviated, and then only 
when it seemed to me to be absolutely necessary. 

In my translation I have striven to be as literal as the differ- 
ence between the two idioms will allow. My method is first 
to translate as closely as I can. and then to try if I can improve 
the form of expression in any way without the sacrifice of truth- 
fulness to the original. I also endeavour to preserve a somewhat 
antiquated and Biblical style, as being peculiarly adapted 
to the rendering into English of Oriental works, whether 
poetical or historical. The Old Testament and the Koran, 



PREFACE. Vll 

which are, of course, in many ways strikingly similar in their 
diction, can both be easily made ridiculous by turning them 
into our modern vernacular, particularly if we vulgarize with 
malice prepense. 

In my version I have sometimes expressed the sense of a 
conjectural emendation rather than of the manuscript reading. 
The comparison of the Syriac text and the critical notes will 
readily show the attentive reader when this is the case. Words 
which I have found it necessary to add for the sake of the 
English form of expression, or of greater clearness, I have 
commonly put within parentheses ( ) ; but where an actual 
lacuna in the text is supplied by conjecture, I have employed 
brackets [ ]. 

Of the notes I think it necessary to say no more than that 
they are intended chiefly for non-orientalists and for those who 
are beginning their oriental studies. It seemed to me to be quite 
superfluous to repeat the historical information contained in the 
copious annotations of Assemani and of the Abbe Martin. In 
matters relating to the topography of Edessa and its district I 
have had recourse to my friend Professor G. Hoffmann of Kiel, 
who is probably the best acquainted of living orientalists with 
the geography of Mesopotamia and the adjacent countries. A 
comprehensive work on the subject from his hand w^ould be a 
boon to all scholars. The plan of Edessa is taken from Carsten 
Niebuhr's Voyage en Arable, et en d'autres Fays circonvoistns, 
traduit de VAllemand, 1780, t. ii, p. 330, with additions and alter- 
ations suggested by Professor Hoffmann. As for the rough map 
of the seat of war, it is only reproduced from an ordinary atlas. 

I have endeavoured, for the convenience of readers, to 
conform my edition in externals, as far as possible, to that of 
the Abb^ ^Martin ; and I would therefore have gladly adopted 
his numeration of the chapters, but found it to be impossible. 
In the first place, I had to strike out his seventh chapter, which 



on 



Vlil TKEFACE. 

is merely the final note of a scribe of much later date. This 
reduces the number of chapters by one from VIII (now VII) to 
XCI (now XC). But, in the second place, I had to unite his 
chapters XCI and XCII, the lacuna on p. 75 of his edition being 
imaginary. Consequently the number of chapters from here to 
the end is reduced by two, and Martin's ch. XCIII is in my 
edition XCI. 

IT. We owe the preservation of the short Chronicle of 
Joshua the Stylite to the care of a later historian, Dionysius of 
Tell-Mahre* patriarch of the Jacobites (ob. A. Gr. 1156, A.D. 
845) "f", who incorporated it with his own larger work, which 
deserves to be made accessible to students of history without 
further delay ;]:. The solitary manuscript of this work which has 
come down to our times is preserved in the Vatican Library §. 
It is in great part palimpsest, the underlying text being Coptic. 
According to Assemani, Bibl. Orient, t. ii, pp. 98, 99, it was 
written in the Nitrian desert when Moses of Nisibis was abbot 
of the convent of S. Mary Deipara, that is to say, between 
A.D. 907 and 944 (see my Catalogue of Byriac MSS. in the 
British Museum, General Index, p. 1310) ; but in his Catal. Codd. 
Manuscriptorum Bihlioth. Apostol. Vaticanae, t. iii, p. 328, no. 
CLXII, he asserts that it was one of those volumes which Moses 
of Nisibis brought back with him to the Nitrian Convent in 932, 
after his visit to Baghdad and his journey through Mesopotamia ||. 

* |'^jv»^!iQ_^Z, in Arabic (^j^S^^'O (Jj > a small town on the river Balikh, 
between ar-Kakkah and Hisn Maslamah, according to Yakut in the Miijam 
al-Bulddn. 

+ See Assemani, Bibl. Orient., t. ii, p. 98 sqq., and pp. 344 — 8. 

X The Swedish orientalist Professor Tullberg of Upsala began an edition of it 
in 1850, which will, I hope, be completed by Professor Ign. Guidi. 

§ Dionysius has placed the Chronicle of Joshua immediately after the 
Henotikon of Zenon, without any prefatory remarks. 

II If so, the note to that effect has disappeared from the manuscript. It must 
be remarked, however, that the volume is much damaged, and that some of the 
worst pages have been covered at a recent period with "carta vegetale". The 
result is that the writing is no longer legible or barely so. 



I'll E FACE. IX 

Of Joshua we know little more than what he has himself 
thought fit to tell us. He wrote his Chronicle at the request of 
one Sergius, the abbot of a convent in the district of Edessa 
(ch. I), to whom he repeatedly addresses himself in the course of 
it. The last date which occurs in it is 28th November A.D. oOG 
(ch. C) ; and considering the tone of the final chapter, I have 
thought myself justified in assigning the composition of the 
work to that winter and the earlier part of the following year, 
which is also Noeldeke's opinion (Zeitschrift d. D. M. G., Bd xxx, 
p. 352)*. A more recent copyist, who supplied a lacuna in the 
manuscript of Dionysius-|*, adds some details regarding Joshua as 
follow^s (see Martin's edition, p. <S). 

*^AD5 .^i 1 nol? ]'^') ^ ]iJ(l^££)] V^O ft > wi^lD ]« » ■ o 

j:'|Z\ ■ in} JJ^I? (delete this word?) |jai ^jjcnai^? |jcn ]^Ld 

.-.. ] ■ v'i' 1 n^ ho'ri obi ,,r)\> Hoio ]-k>jcL.o \0j^^? 

" Pray for the wretched Elisha, from the convent of Zuknin 
(near Amid), who wrote this leaf, that he may find grace like 
the thief on the right hand. Amen and Amen. May the 

* The first sentence of the last chapter is no donbt an addition by a later 
■writer, perhaps Dionysius of Tell-Mahre himself. 

t The preface from p. 1 to p. G, 1. 10, *^01 | i \ it , is in the same hand as 

the bulk of the manuscript. From that point to p. 8, 1. 11, is in the handwriting 
of EHsha of Zuknin. The next leaf of the manuscript begins with the words, 

p. 8, 1. 10, ^ al^Z,m^n\ Zj] .>^n«V?? ILd y^] w^^^5ALd5 
.w.»o M^Zo llloAJi Ai ^ ^ ] i V>o(Ti? .-.. ^^ ]S\ ^A^5 ,__kjai 

There is also a modern copy of the preface and introduction, on European paper, 
as far as p. 11, 1. 11, CTiLo^} 11-»^£D? ]L]} m\ wjumjj ^\4^<^- 
t Not ( ^ > ^ jjL^IilJ, as AssemAni has given in the Bihl. Orient., t. i, 
p. 2G0, col. 2. 



X rPEFACF-:. 

mercy of the great God and our Redeemer Jesus Christ be upon 
the priest Mar Yeshua' (Joshua) the stylite, from the convent of 
Ziiknm, who wrote this Chronicle of the evil times that are past, 
and of the calamities and troubles which the (Persian) tyrant 
wrought among men." 

W. WRIGHT. 

Queens' College, Cambridge. 
23 April, 1882. 



COERIGENDA. 

In the Syriac text: Page 2, 1. 3, read ^OOT-^A-*] — Page 19, 1. 9, perhaps 
we might read %Cl^L^ instead of [noAlD; "he used every day to thrust 
himself into his presence, and importunately ask him to give him" etc. — Page 
25, 1. 18, read *i::i^ p — Page 36, 1. 12, read IjOT-O.— Page 46, 1. 13, read 
r^ — Page 57, 1. 22, add OOCTI after ,_-i-D^ALD?_Page 61, h 11, read 

In the English translation : Page 65, last line. Read : "at Amid. With the 
view of peace, he also sent" etc. 



A HISTORY OF THE TIME OF AFFLICTION AT 
ORHAI* AND AMIDt AND THROUGHOUT ALL 

MESOPOTAMIA. 



I. I have received the letter of thy Godloving holiness, 
most excellent of men, Sergius, priest and abbot, in which thou 
hast bidden me write for thee, by way of record, (concerning the 
time) when the locusts came, and when the sun was darkened, 
and when there was earthquake and famine and pestilence, and 
(about) the war between the Greeks j and the Persians§. But 

* u_iOl3oj Orhdi or Urhdi, ubJi ar-Ruhd, called by the Greeks "ESeo-o-a, 
now Orfah or Urfah. I have elsewhere used the Greek name. 

t r^|) "A/xtda, (Xoi, now called Kara Amid (Black Amid) or Diydr-bekr 



/ ^^ 



t I » V^ OOI? or I I V)03, literally, the Romans; but Constantinople was 
nova Roma, 'Fuj/xt) via, and hence the Syrians and Arabs use the words ( i V) 0? 

and /♦•jJb ar-Rum, to designate the Byzantine Greeks. 

§ ( > ^r^? Pdrsdye, elsewhere written |_i_£D5Q-S, Parsaye or Pursoye. 
It has been thought that the spelling (_»_rc5Q-2) is meant to be insulting, as 

if connecting the word with J_i_£D5(i£), exposure, shame, disgrace, to. aldoTa. 
I can hardly imagine this to be correct (see Cureton, Spicil., p. 14, 11. 16 — 19 ; 
Wright, Catalogue, p. 1161, col. 2, 11. 4, 20; and compare in the present work, in 

ch. xc, (JarbcLa for Poring). To me it appears that it is only an ex- 
ample of the gradually weakening vowel-series d, a, 6, u; as in (j__kJCDJ, 

p O > m 1 ; 1 1 » ^ it > PO » ^ tt> etc. ; not to mention Persian and Teutonic 
, analogies. ^ ^ 

^ J. s. a 



2 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

besides these things, there were found therein great encomiums 
of myself, wliich made me much ashamed even when alone with 
my own soul, because not one of them pertains to me in reality. 
Now I would fain write the things that are in thee, but tlie eye 
of my undeptanding is unable to examine and see, such as it 
actually is, the marvellous robe (aroXr]) which thy energetic 
will hath woven for thee and clothed thee therewith ; for it is 
clearly manifest that thou burnest with the love that fulfils the 
law, since thou carest not only for the brethren that are under 
thy authority at tins time, but also for all the lovers of learning 
that may hereafter enter thy blessed monas^3ry ; and in thy 
diligence thou wish est to leave in writing memorials of the 
chastisements which have been wrought in our times because of 
our sins, so that, when they read and see the things that have 
befallen us, they may take warning by our sins and be delivered 
from our punishments. One must wonder at the fulness of thy 
love, which is poured out upon all men, that it is not exhausted 
nor faileth. Indeed I am unable to speak of it as it is, because 
I have not been nigh unto its working ; nor do I know how to 
tell about it from a single interview which I have had with thee. 
II. Like Jonathan, the true friend, thou hast bound thy- 
self to me in love. Bat that the soul of Jonathan clave unto 
the soul of David, after he saw that the giant was slain by his 
hands and the camp delivered, is not so marvellous as this, 
because he loved him for Ids good deeds ; whereas thou hast 
loved me more than thyself, without having seen anything that 
was good in me. Nor is J(»nathan's delivering of David from 
death at the hands of Saul deserving of v/onder in comparison 
with this (doing) of thine, because he still requited unto him 
something that was due to him; for he iirst delivered him from 
death, and gave life unto him and all his father's house, that 
they should not die by the hands of the Philistine. And 
though nothing like this has been done by me unto thee, thou 
art at all times praying unto God for me, that I may be 
delivered from Satan, and that he may not slay me through 
sins. But this I must say, that thou lovest me as David did 
Saul ; for thou art intoxicated by the greatness of thy affection 
to such a degree that, because of the fervency of thy love, thou 
knowest not what my measure is, but imagincst regarding me 



THE AUTHORS PREFACE. 3 

tilings which are far beyond me. For in the time preceding 
this, thou didst supply my deficiencies by the teaching con- 
tained in thy letters ; and thou didst take such care for me as 
parents do, who, though they have not profited aught by their 
children, yet care for everything that they need. And today 
in thy discretion thou hast humbled thyself, and hast begged 
me to write for thee things that are too hard for me, that 
hereby thou mightest be especially exalted ; and though thou 
knowest tliem better than I do, thou wishest to learn them 
from me. So neither do I grudge thee this, nor do I decline to 
do what thou hast commanded. 

III. Know then that I too, when I saw these signs that 
were wrought and the chastisements that came after them, was 
thinking that they were worthy of being written down and 
preserved in some record, and not let fall into oblivion. But 
whereas I considered the weakness of my mind and my own 
utter ignorance {ISicoTeta}, I declined to do this. Now however 
that thou hast bidden me do this very thing, I am in such fear 
as a man who, not knowing how to swim well, is ordered to go 
down into deep waters. But because I rely on thy prayers to 
draw me out, which are constantly sent up by thee unto God on 
my behalf, I believe that I shall be providentially saved from 
drowning and drawn forth from the sea into which thou hast 
cast me ; since I shall swim as best I can in its shallows, 
because its depths cannot be explored. For who is able to tell 
fittingly concerning those things which God hath wrought in 
His wisdom to wipe out sins and to chastise offences ? For the 
exact nature of God's government is hidden even from the 
angels, as thou mayest learn from the parable of the tares in 
the Gospel*. For when his servants said unto the master 
of the house, " Wilt thou that we go and gather them up ? " 
he that knew the things as they were said unto them, 
" Nay, lest while ye gather up the tares, ye root up also the 
wheat with them." This then we say according to our know- 
ledge, that because of the multitude of our sins our chastise- 
ments were abundant ; and had not the protection of God 
embraced the whole world so that it should not be dissolved, 
the lives of all mankind would probably have perished. For at 

* S. Matthew, ch. xiii. 24. 



4 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

what times did afflictions like these happen with such violence, 
save in these (times) in which we live ? And because the 
cause of them has not been removed, they have not even 
yet ceased. In addition to that which we saw with our own 
eyes and heard with our own ears, and amid which we lived, 
there terrified us also rumours from far and near, and calamities 
that befel in various places ; terrible earthquakes, overturnings 
of cities, famines and pestilences, wars and tumults, captivity 
and deportation of whole districts, rasings and burning of 
churches. And whereas these things have amazed thee by 
their frequency, thou hast sent unto me to write them down 
with w^ords of grief and sorrow, which shall astonish both 
readers and hearers; and I know that thou hast said this 
through thy zeal for good things, that there may be contrition 
also in those who hear them, and that they may draw nigh unto 
repentance. 

IV. But know that it is one thing for a man to write sadly, 

and another (to wTite) truly ; for any man who is endowed with 

natural eloquence can, if he chooses, write sad and melancholy 

tales. But I am a plain man in speech, and I record in this 

book those things which all men that are in our country can 

testify to be true ; and it is for them who read and hear, when 

they have examined them, if they please, to draw nigh unto 

repentance. But perchance one may say, "What profit have 

those who read from these things, if admonition be not mingled 

with the recital?" I for my part, as one who is not able to do 

this, say that these chastisements which have come upon us are 

sufficient to rebuke us and our posterity, and to teach us by the 

memory and reading of them that they were sent upon us for 

our sins. If they did not teach us this, they would be quite 

useless to us. But this cannot be said, because chastisements 

supply to us the place of teaching ; and that they are sent upon 

us for our sins all believers under heaven testify, in accordance 

with the words of S. Paul, who says *, '' When we are chastened, 

we are chastened of the Lord, that we should not be condemned 

with the world." For the whole object of men being chastened 

in this world is that they may be restrained from their sins, and 

that the judgement of the world to come may be made light for 

* 1 Corinthians, ch. xi. 32. 



THE AUTHORS PREFACE. 5 

them. As for those who are chastised because of sinners, whilst 
they themselves have not sinned, a double reward shall be 
added unto them. But there is mercy at all times even for 
those who are unworthy, because of the kindness and grace and 
loncrsufferingr of God, who willeth that this world should last 
until the time that is decreed in His knowledge that forge tteth 
not. And that these things are so is clear both from the 
evidences of holy Scripture and from the things that have taken 
place among us, which we purpose to write down. 

V. For behold, there leaned heavily upon us the calamities 
of hunger and of pestilence in the time of the locusts, so that 
we were well nigh going to destruction ; but God had mercy 
upon us, though we were unworthy, and gave us a little respite * 
from the calamities that pressed upon us. And this, as I have 
said, was because of His goodness. But He changed our 
torments, after we had had some respite, and smote us by the 
hands of the Assyrian, who is called the rod of anger "I*. Now I 
do not wish to deny the free will of the Persians, when I say 
that God smote us by their hands ; nor do I, after God, bring 
foi-ward any blame of their wickedness; but reflecting that, 
because of our sins, He has not inflicted any punishment on 
them, I have set it down that He smote us by their hands. 
Now the pleasure of this wicked people is abundantly made 
evident by this, that they have not shown mercy unto those who 
were delivered up unto them ; for they have been accustomed 
to show their pleasure and to rejoice in evil done to the children 
of men, wherewith the Prophet too taunts them and says, 
prophesying regarding the desolation of Babylon as it were by 
the mouth of the Lord J : "I was wroth with my people, who 
defiled mine inheritance ; and I delivered them into thy hands, 
and thou didst show them no mercy." Unto us too, therefore, 
they have similarly wrought harm in their pitiless pleasure, 
according to their w^ont. For though the rod of their chastise- 
ment did not reach our bodies, and they were unable to make 
themselves masters of our city, (because it is not possible for the 
promise of Christ to be made void, who promised the believing 
king Abgar, saying, " Thy city shall be blessed, and no enemy 

* I ■ 1^1, jjij-SU, "breathing-space." f Isaiah, ch. x. 5. 

X Isaiah, ch. xlvii. 6. 



6 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

shall ever make himself master of it*";) yet, because of the 
believers who were spoiled and led away captive and slain and 
destroyed in the other cities which were captured, and who 
were like mud in the streets, all those have tasted no small 
degree of suffering who have learned to sympathise with them 
that suffer. And those too who were far away from this (sight) 
have been tortured with fear for their own lives by their lack of 
faith, for they thought that the enemy would make himself 
master of Edessa too,, as he had done of other cities. About 
which things we are going to write unto thee. 

VI. Since then, according to the saying of the wise 
Solomon •[*, "War is brought about by provocation"; and thou 
wishest to learn this very thing, namely by what causes it was 
provoked; it is my intention to inform thee whence these 
causes took their rise J, even at the risk of its being thought 
that I speak of things the time of which is long past. And 
then, after a little, I will make known to thee too how these 
causes acquired strength. For although this war was stirred up 
against us because of our sins, yet it took its origin in certain 
obvious facts, which I am going to relate to thee, that thou 
mayest be clearly acquainted with the whole subject, and not 
be led, along with some foolish persons, to blame the all-ruling 
and believing emperor Anastasius. For he was not the exciting 
cause of the war, but it was provoked from a much earlier time, 
as thou mayest understand from the things that I am going to 
write unto thee. 



VII. In the year GOO (a.d. 297— 8) § the Greeks got 
possession of || the city of NisibisIF, and it remained under their 

* On the promise of our Lord to king Abgar that Edessa should never be 
captured by an enemy, see Cureton, Ancient Syriac Documents, p. 10 and p. 152; 
PliilHps, TJie Doctrine of Addai, p. J| and p. 5; Lipsius, Die Edessenische Ahgar- 
Sage Tcritisch untersuclit (Braunschweig, 1880), pp. 16 — 21. 

+ Proverbs, ch. xxiv. 6. % Literally, called. 

§ The era of Alexander, or of the Greeks, begins with October 312 b.c. 

11 The MS. has huilt or rebuilt, Q.±^ ; but we should probably read either 

sacked, OV^, or got j^ossession of, Q.JLD. The former has the support of a 
similar passage in chapter xlviii. ^ 

H Nao-t/Sis, Necrt/Sis or NiVt/Sis, Nisibis, ^^r*^*A> Nasihin. 



JOVINIAN. ZENON. PEIIOZ. 7 

sway for sixty-five years. After the death of Julian in Persia, 
which took place in the year 674 (a.d. 362 — 3), Jovinian*, who 
reigned over the Greeks after him, preferred peace above every- 
thiug; and for the sake of this he allowed the Persians to take 
possession of Nisibis for one hundred and twenty years, after 
which they were to restore it to its (former) masters. These 
years came to an end in the time of the Greek emperor Zenon ; 
but the Persians were unwilling to restore the city, and this 
thing stirred up strife. 

VIII. Further, there was a treaty between the Greeks and 
the Persians, that, if they had need of one another when 
carrying on war with any nation, they should help one another, 
by giving three hundred able-bodied men, with their arms and 
horses, or three hundred staters (estird, (rranqp) in lieu of each 
man, according to the w^ish of the party that had need. Now 
the Greeks, by the help of God, the Lord of all, had never any 
need of assistance from the Persians ; for believing emperors 
have always reigned from that time until the present day, and 
by the help of Heaven their power has been strengthened. 
But the kings of the Persians have been sending ambassadors 
and receiving money for their needs ; but it was not in the way 
of tribute that they took it, as many thought. 

IX. Even in our days Perozi*, the king of the Persians, 
because of the wars that he had with the Kushanaye or Huns J, 
very often received money from the Greeks, not however de- 
manding it as tribute, but exciting their religious zeal, as if he 
was carrying on his contests on their behalf, "that," said he, 
" they may not pass over into your territory." What made 
these words of his find credenc3 was the devastation and 
depopulation § which the Huns wrought in the Greek territory 

* That is, Jovian. See Noeldeke in the Zeitschrift cler Deiitschen Morgen- 
Idndischen Gesellschaft, Bd xxviii, p. 2G3, note 2, 

t See Noeldeke, Geschichte der Perser uiid Araber zur Zeit der Sasaniden, 
translated from at-Tabari, p. 117, with note 2. 

X See the references to Noeldeke's Geschichte der Perser u. s. w., in the note 
on the Syriac text. 

i> I » ^ • > the carrying away captive of the inhabitants into slavery. 
\ a . .0 ^ is the deportation of the whole population from one district to 

another. See ch. iii. 



8 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

in the year 707 (A.D. 395 — 6), in the days of the emperors 
Honorins and Arcadius, the sons of Theodosius the Great, when 
all Syria was delivered into their hands by the treachery of the 
prefect* Rufinus and the supineness of the general {arpaTrjXdrTjf;) 
Addai. 

X. By the help of the money which he received from the 
Greeks, Peroz subdued the Huns, and took many places from 
their land and added them to his own kingdom ; but at last he 
was taken prisoner by them. When Zenon, the emperor of the 
Greeks, heard this, he sent money of his own and freed him, 
and reconciled him with them. Peroz made a treaty with the 
Huns that he would not again cross the boundary of their 
territory to make war with them ; but he went back from and 
broke his covenant, like Zedekiah"|-, and went to war, and like 
him he was delivered into the hands of his enemies, and all his 
army was destroyed and dispersed, and he himself was taken 
alive. He promised in his pride that he would give for the 
safety of his life thirty mules laden with silver coinj; and he 
sent to his country over which he ruled, but he could hardly 
collect twenty loads, for by his former wars he had completely 
emptied the treasury of the king who preceded him. Instead 
therefore of the other ten loads, he placed with them as a 
pledge and hostage (o/at^/do?) his son Kawad§, until he should 
send them, and he made an agreement with them for the 
second time that he would not again go to war. 

XI. When he returned to his kingdom, he imposed a poll- 
tax II on his whole country, and sent the ten loads of silver coin, 
and delivered his son. But he again collected an army and 
went to war ; and the word of the Prophet was in very reality 
fulfilled regarding him, who says IF, " I saw the wicked uplifted 
like the trees of the forest, but when I passed by he was not, 
and I sought him but did not find him." For when a battle 

* "Tirapxos tov irpaiTwplov or ttJs avXrjs. See Du Cange, Glossarium ad 
Scriptores mediae et infimae Graecitatis, "Eirapxos. 

+ 1 Kings, ch. xxiv. 20; 2 Chronicles, ch. xxxvi. 13; Jeremiah, ch. lii. 3. 

+ llOl, 2?/2e, drachmas or dirhams. 

§ See Noeldeke, Gesch. d. Perser u. s. w., p. 135, note 1. 

II (jL-»5 ,.21CC1D, head-money. 

1[ Psalm xxxvii, 35, 36. 



PEROZ. ZENON. BASILISCUS. ILLUS. 9 

took place, and the two hosts* were mingled together in 
confusion, his whole force was destroyed, and he himself was 
sought but not found ; nor to the present day is it known what 
became of him, whether he was buried under the bodies of the 
slain, or threw himself into the sea, or hid himself in a cave 
under ground and perished of hunger, or concealed himself in a 
wood and was devoured by wild beasts. 

XII. In the days of Peroz the Greek empire too was in 
disorder; for the officials of the palace {TraXdnov) hated the 
emperor Zenon because he was an Isaurian by race, and 
Basiliscus-f- rebelled against him and became emperor in his 
stead. Afterwards, however, Zenon strengthened himself and 
was reestablished on the throne. And because he had had 
experience of the hatred of many towards him, he prepared for 
himself an impregnable fortress J in his own country ; so that, 
if any harm should befal him, it might be a place of refuge for 
him. His confidant in this was the military governor [arparT]- 
XaT7]<;) of Antioch, by name lUus, who was likewise an Isaurian ; 
for he bestowed posts of honour and authority upon all his 
countrymen, and for this reason he was much hated by the 
Greeks. 

XIII. When the fortress was fully equipped with every- 
thing necessary for it, and a countless sum of money § had been 
deposited there by Illus, he came to the capital (Constantinople) 
to inform Zenon that he had executed his will. But Zenon, 
because he knew that he was a traitor and was aiming at the 
soverainty, ordered one of the soldiers to kill him. After the 
person to whom this commission had been given was for many 
days seeking an opportunity || of executing it secretly, but 
found none, he accidentally met Illus inside the palace, and 
drew his sword and raised it to smite him. Instantly, however, 
one of the soldiers who formed the retinue of Illus struck him 

* Literally, camps. t The Syriac text has Basilicus. 

it To Ua-rrovpiou KacrriWiv or to llairovplov KaaT^Xkiv, which afterwards served 
as a last refuge for the rebels Illus and Leontius (ch. xvii). See Theophanis 
Chronographia, ed. Classen, vol. i, pp. lOG, 201, 203, 204. 

§ Literally, much gold without tale. 

II The word (-L^Ql-L is not given in any of the native Syriac lexicons to 
which I have access, but its meaning is evident from this passage and that in 
ch. lix. 

J. S. ' h 



10 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

with a knife on the arm, and the sword fell from his hand and 
merely cut off Illus's ear. Zenon, in order that his treachery 
towards Illus might not be disclosed, at once gave orders that 
that soldier's head should be cut off, without any inquiry. But 
this very circumstance only made Illus think the more that 
Zenon had ordered him ; and he arose and departed thence and 
went down to Antioch, having made up his mind that, when- 
ever an opportunity offered, he would take measures to requite 
him. 

XIY. Zenon, being afraid of Illus, because he knew his 
evil design, despatched to him at Antioch certain men of 
standing, and sent him word to come up to him (to Constanti- 
nople), as if he wished to make excuses to him, pretending that 
that treachery was not committed at his instigation, but that he 
did not wish to kill him. However he could not soften the 
hard heart of Illus ; for he despised him, and did not choose to 
obey his command and go to him. At last Zenon sent to him 
another general, whose name was Leon tins, with the troops 
under his orders, and bade him bring Illus up to him by force, 
and if he offered any resistance even to kill him. When this 
man arrived at Antioch, he was corrupted by the gold of Illus, 
and disclosed to him the order which had been given to him to 
put him to death. And when Illus saw that he had hidden 
nothing from him, he too showed him a large quantity of gold 
that he had in his hands, for the sake of which Zenon was 
wishing to kill him ; and he persuaded Leontius to conspire with 
him and to rebel along with him, pointing out to him also the 
hatred of the Greeks towards Zenon. After he had consented, 
Illus was able to disclose his design, for alone he could not rebel 
nor make himself emperor, because the Greeks hated him too 
on account of his race and of his hardness of heart. 

XY. Leontius then became emperor at Antioch in name, 
whilst Illus was in fact the administrator of affairs. As some 
say, he was even scheming to kill Leontius, in case they should 
overcome Zenon. But there was in their following a certain 
rascally conjuror, by name Pamprepius*, who confounded and 
upset all their plans by his perfidy. In order that their throne 

* UaixTTplTTLo^. See Lebeau, Histoire du Bas-Empirc, ed. Saint-Martin, t. 
vii, p. 132. 



ZENON. ILLUS AND LEONTIUS. 11 

miglit be firmly established, they sent ambassadors to Persia, 
with a large sum of money, to conclude a treaty of friendship, 

* or, if they required an army to help them, they 

should send it to them. When Zenon heard of what had 
happened at Antioch, he sent thither one of his generals, whose 
name was John-f-, with a large army. 

XVI. When Illus and Leontiusj: heard of the great force 
that was coming against them, their hearts trembled ; and the 
people of Antioch too were afraid that they might not be able 
to stand a siege, and called on them tumultuously to quit the city, 
and, if they were able, to meet [John in] battle. This caused 
Illus and Leontius much anxiety, and they formed plans for 
quitting Antioch, and crossing the river Euphrates eastwards. 
And they sent one of their partisans, whose name was 
Matronianus §, with five hundred horsemen, to establish their 
authority in Edessa as a seat of government. The Edessenes, 
however, rose up against him, and closed the gates of the city, 
and guarded the wall after the fashion of war, and did not let 
him enter. 

XVII. When Illus and Leontius heard this, they were 
forced to meet John in battle ; but they were not strong enough 
for this, because John fell upon them manfully, and destroyed 
the greater part of the troops that were with them, while the 
rest were scattered every man to his city. They themselves, 
being unable to bear his onslaught, took those that were left 
with them, and made their escape to the fortress of which I 
have said above that it was impregnable and well provided with 
stores of every kind (ch. xii). John pursued after them, but 
did not overtake them, and encamped around || the fortress and 
kept watching it. They, because they relied upon the impreg- 
nability of the fortress, let the troops that were with them go 

* The first alternative in their proposal seems to have been accidentally 
omitted by the scribe. 

t John the Scythian. See Lebeau, op. cit., t. vii, p. 138. 

+ Ot irepl (d/x(pl) "IWov koI keovriov. That in this and similar phrases, here 
and in the next chapter, Illus and Leontius are chiefly or solely meant, is clear 
from the words .OOT-jjZ ^^^-^^Z] , "both of them were put to death," in ch. 

xvii. I have translated accordingly. 

§ Assemani writes Metroninus ; see Bihliotheca Orientalis, t. i, p. 264, col. 1. 
II This translation is not quite exact, a word being illegible in the MS. 



12 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

down, retaining with them only chosen men and valiant. John 
appeased his fury upon those who came down from the fortress, 
but was unable to harm 111 us and Leontius in any way. Now 
because of the difficulty of the natural position of the fortress, it 
was also rendered wonderfully impregnable by the work of men's 
hands, and there was no path leading up to it save one, by which, 
because of its narrowness, not even two persons could ascend at 
once. However, after a considerable time, when all John's 
stratagems were exhausted, Illus and Leontius were betrayed by 
those who were with them, and were taken captive in their sleep. 
By the order of Zenon both of them were put to death, as well 
as those who betrayed them, and the hands of all who were with 
them were cut off. Such were the troubles of the Greek empire 
in the days of Peroz. 

XVIII. After the sudden disappearance of Peroz, which I 
have mentioned above (ch. xi), his brother Balash * reigned 
over the Persians in his place. This was a humble man and 
fond of peace. He found nothing in the Persian treasury, and 
his land was laid waste and depopulated by the Huns, (for thou 
in thy wisdom dost not forget what expense and outlay kings 
incur in wars, even when they are victorious, and how much 
more when they are defeated,) and from the Greeks he had 
no help of any kind such as his brother had. For he sent 
ambassadors to Zenon, asking him to send him money ; but 
because he was occupied with the war against Illus and Leontius, 
and because he also remembered the money that had been sent 
by them at the commencement of their rebellion, which still 
remained there in Persia, he did not choose to send him anything, 
save this verbal message: "The taxes of Isisibis which thou 
receivest are enough for thee, which for many years past have 
been due to the Greeks." 

XIX, Balash then, because he had no money to maintain 
his troops, was despised in their eyes. The priesthood "|- too 
hated him, because he was trying to abolish their laws, and 
wishing to build baths {^aXavela) in the cities for bathing J; 

* See Noeldeke, Gesch. der Perser u. s. w., p. 133, and Zeitschrift der B. M. G., 
Bd xxviii, pp. 9i, 95. 

+ l-aCl-ifc V), the Magi. See Noeldeke, Gesch. d. Perser u. s. w., p. 450. 

X See Noeldeke, oj). cit., p. 134, note 5. 



BALASH. KAWAD. ANASTASIUS. 13 

aod when they saw that he was not counted aught in the eyes of 
his troops, they took him and blinded him, and set up in his 
stead Kawad *, the son of his brother Peroz, whose name we 
have mentioned above (eh. x), who was left as a hostage among 
the Huns, and who it was that stirred up the war with the 
Greeks, because they did not give him money. For he sent 
ambassadors, and a large elephant as a present to the emperor, 
that he might send him money. But before the ambassadors 
reached Antioch in Syria, Zenon died, and Anastasius became 
emperor after him. When the Persian ambassador informed 
his master Kawad of this change in the Greek government, he 
sent him word to go up with diligence and to demand the 
customary money, or else to say to the emperor, " Take war." 

XX. And so, instead of speaking words of peace and 
salutation, as he ought to have done, and of rejoicing with him 
on the commencement of the soverainty which had been newly 
granted him by God, he irritated the mind of the believing 
emperor Anastasius with threatening words. But when he 
heard his boastful language, and learned about his evil conduct, 
and that he had reestablished the abominable sect (aipeac^) of 
the magi which is called that of the Zaradushtakan -[", (which 
teaches that women should be in common, and that every one 
should have connexion with whom he pleases,) and that he had 
wrought harm to the Armenians who were under his sway, 
because they would not worship fire, he despised him, and did 
not send him the money, but sent him Avord, saying, " As Zenon, 
who reigned before me, did not send it, so neither will I send it, 
until thou restorest to me Xisibis ; for the wars are not trifling 
which I have to carry on with the barbarians who are called the 
Germans, and with those who are called the Blemyes J, and with 

* See Noeldeke, op. cit., p. 135. 

+ The followers of Mazdak, the son of Bamdadh, who was the disciple of 
Zardduaht, the son of Khoiagan. See Noeldeke, Gesch. d. Perser u. s. w., pp. 
455 — 4G7, especially pp. 45G — 7. 

X BX^/ives or BX^/xfxves, an Ethiopian or negro race, who used to harry Upper 
Eg^T*- Quatremere, in his Memoirea georjr. et Jiistor. sur VKgyptc, t. ii, p. 131, 

identified them with the Buja, <l:^UJl or i^V:s:UJl> of the Arabian geographers ; 
but they seem rather to be the same as the BeUyiin (?) of al-Idrisi, ^ySS!y\' 
See Dozy and De Gocje, Description de VAfriquc et de VEspayne par Edriai, pp. 
^\, CY, and pp. 26, 32. 



14 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

many others : and I will not neglect the Greek troops and feed 
thine." 

XXI. When the Armenians who were under the rule 
of Kawad heard that he had not received a peaceful answer from 
the Greeks, they took courage and strengthened themselves, and 
destroyed the fire-temples that had been bnilt by the Persians 
in their land, and massacred the magi who were among them. 
Kawad sent against them a general * with an army to chas- 
tise them and make them return to the worship of fire ; but 
they fought with him, and destroyed both him and his army, 
and sent ambassadors to our emperor, offering to become his 
subjects. He however was unwilling to receive them, that he 
might not be thought to be stirring up war with the Persians. 
Let those therefore who blame him because he did not give the 
money, rather blame him who demanded what was not his as if 
by force ; for had he asked for it peaceably and by persuasion, 
it would have been sent to him ; but he hardened his heart like 
Pharaoh, and used threats of war. But we place our trust in 
the justice of God, that He will bring upon him a greater 
punishment than that of the other because of his filthy laAvs, for 
he wished to violate the law of nature and to destroy the path 
of the fear of God. 

XXII. Next the whole of the Kadishaye f who were under 
his sway rebelled against him, and wanted to enter Nisibis, and 
to set up in it a king of their own ; and they fought against it 
for a considerable time. The Tamuraye I too, who dwell in the 
land of the Persians, when they saw that nothing was given to 
them by him, rebelled against him. These placed their trust in 
the lofty mountains amid which they dwelt, and used to come 
down and spoil and plunder the villages around them, and 
(rob) the merchants, both forainers and natives of the place, and 
then go up again. The nobles too of his kingdom hated him, 
because he had allowed their wives to commit adultery. The 

* The word in the original is marz^hana or marzhdn, which signifies in 
Persian "warden of the inarches," or what the Germans call " Markgraf." It is 
nearly equivalent to the older term of "satrap." See Noeldeke, Gcsch. d. Perser 
u. s. w., p. 102, note 2, and p. 446. 

+ They dwelt in the neighbourhood of Sinjar and Dara. See Noeldeke in 
the Zeitschrift d. D. M. G., Bd xxxiii, p. 157. 

+ See Noeldeke, loc. cit., p. 158, note 4. 



ISAURIAN REBELLION. KAWAD. ZAMASHP. 15 

Arabs * also who were under his sway, when they saw the 
confusion of his kingdom, likewise made predatory raids, as 
far as their strength permitted, throughout the whole Persian 
territory. 

XXIII. There arose at this time another trouble in the 
Greek territory also; for the Isaurians, after the death of Zenon, 
rebelled against the emperor Anastasius, and were wishing to 
set up an emperor who was pleasing to themselves *[*. When 
Kawad heard this, he thought that he had found his opportunity, 
and sent ambassadors to the Greek territory, thinking that they 
would be afraid and would send him money, since the Isaurians 
had rebelled against them. But the emperor Anastasius sent 
him word, saying, " If thou askest it as a loan, I will send it to 
thee ; but if as a matter of custom, I will not neglect the Greek 
armies, which are sore put to it in the war with the Isaurians, 
and become a helper of the Persians." By these words the 
spirit of Kawad was humbled, because his plan had not suc- 
ceeded. The Isaurians were overcome and destroyed and 
slaughtered, and all their cities were rased and burned. The 
Persian grandees plotted in secret to slay Kawad, on account of 
his impure morals and perverse laws; and when this became 
known to him, he abandoned his kingdom, and fled to the 
territory of the Huns, to the king at whose court he had been 
brought up when he was a hostage. 

XXIV. His brother ZamashpJ reigned in his stead over 
the Persians. Kawad himself took to wife among the Huns his 
sister's daughter §. His sister had been led captive thither in 
the war in which his father was slain ; and because she was a 
king's daughter, she became the wife of the king of the Huns, 
and he had a daughter by her ||. When Kawad fled thither, she 
gave him this daughter to wife. Being emboldened by having 
become the king's son-in-law, he used to weep before him every 

* In the text Taiyaye, which originally designated the Arabs of the tribe of 

Taiyi', ^. ^ , one of the most powerful in northern Arabia. 

t See Lebcau, op. cit., t. vii, p. 229 sqq. 

X See Noeldeke, Gesch. d. Ferser u. s. w., p. 142 and note 2. 

§ See Noeldeke, op. cit., p. 137, note 1. 

II See Noeldeke, op. cit., p. 130, with notes 1 and 3. 



16 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

day, imploring him to give him the aid of an army, that he 
might go and kill the grandees and establish himself on his 
throne. His father-in-law gave him a by no means small army, 
according to his request. When he reached the land of the 
Persians, his brother heard of it, and fled before him, and he 
accomplished his wish and slew the grandees. He also sent a 
message to the Tamuraye, threatening them that, if they did 
not submit to him of their own accord, they would be conquered 
in war; but, if they would join his army, that they should enter 
with him the Greek territory, and out of the spoil of that 
country he would distribute to them all that had been wrongly 
withheld from them (see ch. xxii). They were afraid of the 
Hunnish army, and yielded to him. The Kadishaye, who were 
encamped against Nisibis (ch. xxii), when they heard this, 
submitted likewise. And the Arabs, when they learned that he 
was going to make war with the Greeks, crowded to him with 
great alacrity. The Armenians, on the other hand, who were 
afraid lest he should take vengeance on them because of those 
fire-temples which they had rased in time past, were unwilling 
to obey him. But he collected an army and went to war with 
them ; and though he was too strong for them, he did not 
destroy them, but promised them that he would not even 
compel them to worship fire, if they would be his auxiliaries in 
the war with the Greeks. They consented most unwillingly, 
because they were afraid. What things Kawad did after he 
entered the Greek borders, I will tell thee hereafter in their 
proper time ; but just now, as thou hast bidden me to write 
unto thee also about the signs and chastisements Avhich took 
place, in their due order, and about the locusts and the 
pestilence and the dearth, and these are antecedent in point of 
time, I will turn my discourse unto them. And that the 
narrative may not be confused, I will set down the years 
separately, one by one, and under each of them, by and for 
itself, I will state what happened in it, God being my helper by 
the aid of the prayers of thee His elect. 



PLAGUE OF BOILS. FESTIVAL AT EDESSA. 17 

XXV. Tlie year of Alexander 806 (a.d. 494—5). Con- 
cerning then the cause of the war, and how it was provoked, 
I have, as I think, sufficiently informed thee, O our father, 
thoucrh I have written down these narratives in brief terms, 
because I was anxious to avoid prolixity. Some of them I 
found in old books ; others I learned from meeting with men 
who had acted as ambassadors to both monarchs; and others 
from those who were present at these occurrences. But now 
I am going to inform thee of the things that happened 
with us, because with this year commenced the violent 
chastisements and the signs that have taken place in our 
own days. 

XXVI. At this time our bodies were perfectly sound all 
over, but the pains and diseases of our souls were many. But 
God, who finds pleasure in sinners when they repent of their 
sins and live, made our bodies as it were a mirror for us, and 
filled our whole bodies with sores, that by means of our exterior 
He might show us what our interior was like unto, and that, by 
means of the scars of our bodies, we might learn how hideous 
were the scars of our souls. And as all the people had sinned, 
all of them were smitten with this plague. For there were 
swellings and tumours* upon all the people of our city, and the 
faces of many gathered and became full of matter, and they 
presented a horrid sight. There were some whose whole 
bodies were full of boils or pustules, down even to the palms of 
their hands and the soles of their feet ; whilst others had large 
holes in their several limbs. However, by the goodness of God 
which protected them, the pain did not last long with any one, 
nor did any defect or injury result in the body ; but, though the 
scars of the sores were quite plain after healing, the limbs were 
preserved in such a state as to fulfil their functions in the body. 
At this time thirty modii of wheat were sold at Edessa for 
a dinar, and fifty of barley f. 

XXVII. The year 807 (a.d. 495—6). On the I7th of 
lyar (May) in this year, when blessings were sent down 

* The word (o ''^ 1 is explained in the native glossaries by cul>-ij£>-. 

t J-»5Q1d is the Latin modius. By (; ^ >y dinar (the Latin denarius), 
is here meant the Byzantine aureus. 

J. s. c 



18 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

abundantly from heaven upon all men, and the crops by the 
blessing (of God) were abundant, and rain was falling, and the 
fruits of the earth were growing in their season, the greater part 
of the citizens (of Edessa) cut off all hope of safety for their lives 
by sinning openly. Being plunged in all sorts of luxurious 
pleasures, they did not even send up thanks for the gifts of 
God, but were neglectful of [this duty], and corrupted by the 
diseases of sins. And as if the secret and open sins in which 
they were indulging were not enough for them, they were 
present on the day above specified, that is to say, on the night 
between the Friday and Saturday*, [at the place] where the 
dancer (o/?%7;o-t?79) who was named Trimerius was dancing "f*. 
They kindled lamps without number in honour of this festival, 
a custom which was previously unknown in this city. These 
were arranged by them on the ground along the river| from the 
gate of the Theatre § as far as the gate of the Arches ||. They 
placed on its bank lighted lamps {KavhrfKai), and hung them in 
the porticoes (aroal), in the town-hall H, in the upper streets**, 

* Literally, which is the day of Friday, the dawning of the Saturday. 
t See the note on the Syriac text. 

X The Daisan, * ^5, or Kara Koyftn, which now flows round the northern 
part of the city, but in ancient times ran right through it from N.W. to S.E., 
parallel to, or perhaps coinciding with, the modern 'Ain al-Khalil or 'Ain 
Ibrahim. 

§ This was apparently on the eastern side of the city, at the exit of the 
Daisan. 

II So I have ventured to translate the word, reading it \21^, plural of 
]L£1D. See Cureton, Ancient Syriac Documents, p. M!h-^> !• 22. But my 

friend Professor G. Hoffmann, of Kiel, reads |.21D5 p^5A^, "to the gate of 

the Grottoes" or "Tombs," meaning thereby the grottoes or tombs cut out in the 
range of heights to the west of the city. At any rate, this gate lay on the west 
side of the city, at or near the entrance of the Daisan. 

H '0 avricpopos, the town-hall (perhaps so called from its being situated ante 
forum). See Procopius, De Aedijiciis, ii. 7, ed. Dindorf, t. iii, p. 229. 

** If the conjecture ( » \^ ^DQ_a.^O be right, the "upper streets" are 
those in the S.W. corner of the city, where there is a hill, on which lay the old 
town ( l^);^) of king Abgar with its buildings and fortifications. See the account 
of the great flood, A. Gr. 513, a. d. 201, in Assemani, Bihl. Orient., t. i, pp. 390—3. 
The reading of the MS. is, however, very uncertain. Originally it seems to have 



MIRACLE. BISHOP CYRUS. GOVERNOR ALEXANDER. 19 

and in many (other) places. Because of this wickedness a 
marvellous sign was wrought by God to reprove them. For the 
symbol of the Cross, which the statue (dvSptd<; -dvra) of the 
blessed emperor Constantino held in its hand, receded from the 
band of the statue about one cubit, and remained thus during 
the Friday and Saturday until evening. On the Sunday the 
symbol came of its own accord and drew nigh to its place, and 
the statue took it in its hand, as it had held it before. By 
means of this sisrn the discreet understood that the thinor that 

o o 

had been done was very far removed from what was pleasing 
unto God. 

XXVIII. The year 808 (a.d. 496—7). This sign from 
above was not sufficient for us to restrain us from our sins ; on 
the contrary, we became more audacious, and gave ourselves up 
easily to sins. The small slandered their neighbours, and the 
great w^ere full of respect of persons. Envy and treachery 
prevailed among all of us ; and adultery and fornication 
abounded. Tlie plague of boils became more prevalent among 
the people, and the eyes of many were destroyed both in the 
city and the (surrounding) villages. Mar Cyrus* the bishop 
displayed a seemly zeal, and exhorted the citizens to make a 
small litter i* of silver in honour of the eucharistic vessels, that 
they might be placed in it when they were going to minister 
with them at the commemoration of one of the martyrs. Every 
one gave according to his means, but Eutychianus, the husband 
of AureliaJ, was the first to show right good will, giving a 
hundred dinars of his own property. 

XX [X. Anastasius the governor (yye/Jicov) was dismissed, 
and Alexander came in his place at the end of this year. He 
cleared the streets of the city of filth, and swept away the 

had (AXl »0Q-«-Q, which was subsequently altered into |^Q. • *^. If 
|AXl» %On m *^ bo correct, it would seem to mean "the corn-market" 

* Mar, shortened from Marl, means "my lord." 

t AeKTtKioy, lectica. The word is feminine in Syriac, like » mVn >^ from 
SrjfJtocriov. 

X Aurelia is only a conjectural emendation. See the note on the Syriac text. 
Assemani gives Irene, Bill. Orient., t. i, p. 2G7, col. 2. 



20 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

booths* which had been built by the artisans in the porticoes 
and streets. He also placed a box (kl0(ot6<;) in front of his 
palace (irpacroopiov), and made a hole in the lid of it, and wrote 
thereon, that, if any one wished to make known anything, and 
it was not easy for him to do so openly, he should write it down 
and throw it into it without fear. By reason of this he learned 
many things which many people wrote down and threw into it. 
He used to sit regularly every Friday in the church •)- of S. John 
the Baptist and S. Addai the Apostle, and to settle legal causes 
without any expense. And the wronged took courage against 
their wrongers, and the plundered against their plunderers, and 
brought their causes before him, and he decided them. Some 
causes which were more than fifty years old, and had never been 
inquired into, were brought before him and settled. He con- 
structed the covered walk {irepiTraro^ -o^)+. which was beside 
the gate of the Arches §. He began also to build the public bath 
{Srj/jLoacov), which had been planned years before to be built 
beside the granary || of corn. He gave orders that the artisans 
should hang over their shops on the eve of Sunday H crosses 
with five lighted lamps ((pavol) attached to them. 

XXX. The year 809 (a. d. 497—8). Whilst these things 
were taking place, there came round again the time of that 
festival at which the heathen tales were sung ; and the citizens 
(of Edessa) took even more pains about it than usual. For 
seven days previously they were going up in crowds to the 

* lA.21^^iiD, or more commonly (Aib.^^k), (A^l^^nSD, plural of 

lACL^^iO or |A.Ti fc^rnV), in Arabic fUiiu^} Jj^-^s^, in later Hebrew 

^^^1^D^ - Kn^'i'ltOD^ - perhaps ultimately from arL^as -d8a, arL^adiou. 
T : • T • : • 

+ I >C7L£D A-»-0 , fxaprvpLov, a church in which the relics of a saint or saints 
are preserved. 

Ij: In Byzantine writers Trepi-rraTos means a rampart (see Du Cange), but here 
the word appears to bear its older sense of covered walk, cloister. Martin, 
however, renders the word by "un Paropton," and adds: ''irapoirTov d6signait, 
a proprement parler, la piece de bain nomm^e le Calidaire." 

§ See above, p. 18, note ||. 

II The MS. reads ^Q.^ i„CO) which may be derived from (xltikos, or may 
perhaps be an error for pCl.^u»_rD, (titcvp -wm, (nriLvLov. 
" v'^'O"' " ^' ^'^*' °^ t'lic aight between Saturday and Sunday. 

IICHAEL' 




/./BRARN 



FESTIVAL AT EDESSA. FALL OF BATHHOUSE. 21 

theatre at eventide, clad in linen garments, and wearing tur- 
bans*, with their loins ungirt. Lamps (KavBrjXai) were lighted 
before them, and they were burning incense, and holding vigils 
the whole night, walking about the city and praising the 
dancerf until morning, wdth singing and shouting and lewd 
behaviour (aTprjvo^). For these reasons they neglected also to 
go to prayer, and not one of them bestowed a thought on his 
duty, but in their pride they mocked at the modesty of their 
fathers, who, quoth they, " did not know how to do these things 
as we do " ; and they kept saying that the inhabitants of the 
city in the olden times were simpletons and fools (IStcorat). In 
this way they became daring in their impiety, and there was 
none to warn or rebuke or admonish. For although Xenaias, 
the bishop (eViV/coTro?) of Mabb6g|, was at the time in Edessa, — 
of whom beyond all others it was thought that he had taken 
upon him to labour in teaching, — yet he did not speak with 
them on this subject more than one day. But God in His 
mercy showed them clearly the care which He had for them, 
that they might be restrained from their iniquity. For the two 
colonnades (ffaacXcfcal) and the tepidarium (or lukewarm-bath- 
room) § of the summer bathhouse fell down ; but by God's good- 
ness nobody was hurt there, although many people were at 
work in it both inside and outside, and no one perished of them 
except two men, who were crushed, as they were fleeing from 
the noise of the fall, at the door of the coldwater-bathroom. 

* (1 > O^ is not TTOLKiXa, embroidered robes, but 0a/ci6Xia {(paKcoXia, (paKeui- 
XtSej), a kind of turbans. See Du Cange. 

t Probably Trimerius (see ch. xxvii). Unless we should read | ^m » n^jl ^ 
the dancers. 

X Mabbog or MabClg, Hierapolis, now Membij, ^^^uuuj- On Xenaias or Philo- 

xenus, the friend of Severus, patriarch of Antioch, see Assemani, Bibl. Orient., 
t. ii, p. 10, and Bickell, Conspectus ret Syrorum literariae, p. 40. Also Wright, 
Catalogue of Sijriac MSS. in the British Museum, p. 526, sqq, 

§ So Martin has plausibly rendered the words |Z5o ■ ^ A-»-0. The 

MS. however has |Z5Zo a ^ L > n ; and it is possible that we should read 

|Z.5 o • ^ L il^jk.^, the urinal or latrine. From (Z5a-a.^Z, urina, is 



derived the Arabic medical term 'i 



^j^M.kA). 



22 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

Whilst they were laying hold of it from opposite sides, to make 
it revolve, they were delayed by this struggle as to which of 
them should get out first, and the stones fell upon them and 
they died. All sensible men gave thanks to God that He had 
preserved the city from having to mourn for many ; for this 
bath was to have been opened* in a few days. So complete 
was its downfall that even the lowest ranges of stone, which 
were laid on the surface of the ground, were uprooted from their 
places. 

XXXI. In this same year was issued an edict of the emperor 
Anastasius that the money should be remitted which the artisans 
used to pay once in four years -|*, and that they should be freed 
from the impost. This edict was issued, not only in Edessa, 
but in all the cities of the Greek empire. The Edessenes used to 
pay once in four years one hundred and forty pounds of gold J. 
The whole city rejoiced, and they all put on white garments, 
both small and great, and carried lighted tapers (Kr]pL(t)v6<;) and 
censers full of burning incense, and went forth with psalms and 
hymns, giving thanks to God and praising the emperor, to the 
church of S. Sergius and S. Simeon, where they celebrated the 
eucharist. They then reentered the city, and kept a glad and 
merry festival during the whole week, and enacted that they 
should celebrate this festival every year. All the artisans were 
reclining and enjoying themselves, bathing, and feasting § 
in the court of the (great) Church || and in all the porticoes of 
the city. 

* This is merely a quid pro quo. If [-kkJCDZ. be correct, it can only mean 
that "this bath was to have let (people) bathe in a few days." 

t The tax called xpi'O'apTi'poi'. See Lebeau, op. cit, t. vii, p. 247. 

X \'^ I \, Xirpai, librae. The word was used by the Phoenicians of Sardinia 
in the second century B.C. (Sard, triling. 1, JlX^ D'HtD/ 7p^^)) and still 

survives in Arabic in the shape of ritl or ratU /Ji? »• 

§ The word rendered "feasting," . i *^V)rO , means literally "reclining" (or, 
as we should say, "sitting") at table. The word translated "bathing" was very 
doubtful in the MS., and has now altogether disappeared. 

II By "the Church" par excellence we are, I suppose, to understand "the 
great Church of S. Thomas the Apostle" (see Assennini, Bihl. Orient., t. i, 
p. 399). It is uncertain, however, whether the actual reading of the manuscript 
is not |Z.y.L5 jZiJJO, "in the courts of the churches." 



BISHOP PETER. GOVERNOR DEMOSTHENES. EARTHQUAKE. 23 

XXXII. In this year, on the 5th of the month of Khaziran 
(June), Mar Cyrus the bishop departed this life, and Peter 
succeeded him *. He added to the festivals of the year that 
of Palm Sunday. He also established the custom of consecrating 
the water on the night immediately preceding the feast of the 
Epiphany; and he prayed -f- over the oil of unction on the 
Thursday (in Passion Week) before the whole people ; besides 
regulating the other feasts. Alexander the governor was 
dismissed, and Demosthenes succeeded him. By his order all 
the porticoes of the city were whitewashed, whereat persons of 
experience were much annoyed, for they said that it was 
a warning sign of approaching evils that were to befal their 
home J. 

XXXIII. Tlie year 810 (a.d. 498—9). A proof of God's 
justice was manifested towards us at this time, for the correction 
of our evil conduct ; for in the month of lyar (May) of this year, 
when the day arrived for the celebration of that wicked heathen 
festival, there came a vast quantity of locusts into our country 
from the south. They did not, however, destroy or harm 
anything in this year, but merely laid their eggs§ in our 
country in no small quantity. After their eggs were deposited 
in the ground, there were terrible earthquakes in the land ; and 
it is clear that they took place to awaken the people out of the 
sin in which they were plunged, that they might not be (further) 
chastised by famine and pestilence. 

XXXIV. In the month of Ab (August) of this year there 
came an edict from the emperor Anastasius that the fights of 
wild beasts in the amphitheatre [Kvvrjycov) should be suppressed 

A 

in all the cities of the Greek empire. In the month of Ilul 
(September) there was a violent earthquake, and a great sound 
was heard from heaven over the land, so that the earth trembled 
from its foundations at the sound ; and all the villages and 
towns heard that sound and felt the earthquake. Alarm- 

* See Le Quien, Oriens Christianus, t. ii, col. 962. This Cyrus was the 
Bccond bishop of the name. 

t The word rendered "he prayed" was uncertain in the MS., and has now 
wholly vanished. 

X The text is uncertain, but this is no doubt the general sense of the 
paB8a;je. 

§ Literally, "planted." 



24 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

ing rumours and evil reports came to us from all quarters ; 
and, as some said, a marvellous sign was seen in tlie river 
Euphrates and at the hotspring of Abarne *, in that the water 
which flowed from their fountains was dried up this day. It 
does not appear to me that this is false, because, whenever the 
earth is rent by earthquakes, it happens that the running 
waters in those places that are cleft are restrained from flowing, 
and are at times even turned into another direction ; as the 
blessed David too, when telling in the eighteenth psalm "[• of 
the punishments that came from God upon His enemies, by 
means of the shaking of the earth and the cleaving of the 
mountains, and the like, lets us know that this also took place. 
For he says I : " The fountains of the waters were laid bare, and 
the foundations of the world were seen, at Thy rebuke, O Lord." 
There came too in the course of this month a letter, which was 
read in church before the whole congregation, stating that 
Nicopolis § had fallen to the ground of a sudden at midnight and 
overwhelmed all its inhabitants. Some strangers {^evioi) too 
who were there, and certain brethren from our schools {aypKai) 
who were travelling thither and happened to be on the spot, 
were buried (in the ruins). Their companions who came (back 
from thence) told us (this). The whole wall of the city all 
round, and everything that was within it, was overturned in 
that night, and not one person of them remained alive, save the 
bishop of the town and two other men, who were sleeping 
behind the apse (fcojxv) of the altar of the church. When the 
ceiling of the room in which they were sleeping fell, one end of 
its beams was propped up by the wall of the altar, and so it did 

* See Land, Anecdota Syriaca, t. ii, p. 210, 1. 7. The hotspring of Abarne 

lies near Chermuk or Chermik, (,^J^--^.>-, northwards of . .; *^ ] o » m or 
Suverek, midway between the Euphrates and Tigris. See Ammianus Mar- 
cellinus, 18, 9, 2, and J. J. Benjamin II, Eight Years in Asia (Hanover, 
1863), p. 82. I owe these references to Professor G. Hoffmann. The reading 
Mr^l? |A V) I V)k >, "the hotspring of the Iberians (Georgians)" is indefen- 
sible. It occurs also, however, in the Chronicon Edessenum, as edited by Assemani, 
Bibl. Orient. f t. i, p. 406, no. Ixxvi. 

t Psalm xviii. 7, sqq. + Psaka xviii. 15. 

^ Ox- 

§ Another name for Emmaus, (jM\y<s.j in Palestine, about halfway between 
Jaffa and Jerusalem. 



FALL OF NICOPOLIS AND ARSAMOSATA. 25 

not bury them. A certain brother, whose veracity can be 
depended upon, has told me as follows. " At eventide of the 
night when Nicopolis fell, we were lying down inside the town, 
I and a companion of mine. He was very restless, and said to 
me, 'Get up, and let us go and pass the night outside of the 
town in yonder cave, as is our custom, for I cannot get rest here, 
because the air is so sultry and sleep will not come to me.' So 
we got up, I and he, and went out of the town, and passed the 
niofht in the cave, as was our custom. When the time of dawn 
drew nigh, I awakened the brother who was with me, and said 
to him, ' Get up, for it is daybreak, and let us go into the town, 
and attend to our business.' So we got up, I and he, and came 
into the town, and found all its houses overturned, and the 
people and the cattle, the oxen and the camels, buried therein ; 
and the sound of their groaning was coming up from under the 
ground. Those who came together to the spot took out the 
bishop from beneath the beams (of the roof) by which he 
■svas sheltered. He asked for bread and wine, wherewith to 
celebrate the eucharist, [but could get none,] because the 
whole town was overturned and nothins^ in it left standins^. 
Presently, however, there arrived a wayfarer, a good man, who 
gave him some small pieces of bread and a little wine, and he 
celebrated the eucharist and prayed, and made those who were 
there participate in the mystery of life. He resembled at this 
time, as it seems to me, the just Lot when he made his 
escape from Sodom." Thus much is sufficient to tell. 

XXXV. Again, in the north there was a church called that 
of Arsamosata *, which was very strongly built and beautifully 
decorated. On a fixed day in each year, namely on the day of 
the commemoration of the martyrs who were deposited in it, 
many used to gather together thither from all quarters, partly 
for prayer and partly for traffic ; for great provision was made for 
the people who were assembled on that occasion. When there 
was a great crowd collected of men and women and children, of 

* The name of 'Apaa/JLoaara, in Aralic buL-c-i> » Shimshdt, is pronounced in 

Syriac ArsheinsluU, which is represented in Greek letters by 'Apxvf^X'^T o*^ 

'Apxtfj-xdr (see Wright's Catalogue, p. 433, col. 2). It lay in the district of 
Khartabirt or Kharput, eastwards of that place. 

J. S. d 



26 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

every age and class, there were terrible flashes of lightning and 
violent peals of thunder and frightful noises ; and all the people 
fled to the church, to seek refuge with the bones of the saints. 
And whilst they were in great fear, and were engaged in prayer 
and service at midnight, the church fell in and crushed beneath 
it the greater part of the people who were in it. This happened 
on the same day on which Nicopolis fell. 

XXXYI. The year 811 (a.d. 499—500). By all these 
earthquakes and calamities, however, not a man of us was 
restrained from his evil ways, so that our country and our city 
remained without excuse. Because we had been preserved 
from the chastisement inflicted on others *, and rumours from 
afar had not alarmed us, we were (presently) smitten with a 
stroke for which there was no healing. Let us recognise there- 
fore the justice of God and say, "Kighteous is the Lord, and 
very upright are His judgments f;" for lo, in His longsufFering 
He was yet willing by means of signs and wonders to restrain 
us from our evil doings. In the month of the first Teshrin 
(October) of this year, on the 2.3d, which was a Saturday, at the 
rising of the sun, his brightness ^was taken away from him, 
and his sphere of light appeared like silver. He had no per- 
ceptible rays, and our eyes could easily gaze upon him with- 
out hindrance, for he had neither rays nor beams to hinder 
them from looking upon him. Just as it is easy for us to 
look upon the moon, so we could look upon him. He continued 
thus till towards the eighth hour. The ground over which 
shone the little light that there was, seemed as if ashes or 
sulphur had been sprinkled upon itj. On this day another 
dreadful and terrible sign took place on the wall of the city. 
This city, which, because of the faith of its king and the 
righteousness of its inhabitants in days of old, was deemed 
worthy to receive a blessing from our Lord (see ch. v), was well 
nigh overwhelming its inhabitants at the present day, because 
of the multitude of their sins. For there was a breach in the 
wall from the south to the Great Gate§; and some of the 

* Following the correction suggested in the note on the Syriac text. 

t Psalm cxix. 137. 

X In what terms would Joshua have described a dense London fog? 

§ The Great Gate lay at the S.E. corner of the town, leading out to Harr&n. 



MOCK SUNS. COMET. LOCUSTS. 27 

stones at this spot were scattered to no inconsiderable distance 
from it. By the order of our father the bishop Mitr Peter, 
public prayers Avere offered, and every one besought mercy from 
God. He took all his clergy (KXrjpo<;) and all the members 
of religious orders, both men and women, and all the lay 
members of the holy Church, both rich and poor, men women 
and children, and they traversed all the streets of the city, 
carrying crosses, with psalms and hymns, clad in black garments 
of humiliation. All the convents too in our district kept up 
continual services with great diligence ; and so, by the prayers 
of all the holy ones, the light of the sun was restored to its 
place, and we were a little cheered. 

XXXVII. In the latter Teshri (November) we saw three 
signs in the sky at midday *. One of them was in the midst of 
the heavens in the south. It resembled in its colour the bow 
that is in the clouds, and with its concave surface it looked 
upwards ; that is to say, its convex surface was downwards and 
its extremities were upwards. And there was one on the east, 
and another also on the west. Again, in the latter Kanun 
(January), we saw another sign in the exact southwest corner 
(ycovta) (of the heavens) "f", which resembled a spear. Some 
people said of it that it was the besom of destruction, and 
others said that it was the spear of war. 

XXXVIII. Till now we were chastised (only) with rumours 
and signs ; but for the future who is able to tell of the 
affliction that surrounded our land on all sides ? In the month 

A 

of Adar (March) of this year the locusts came upon us out of the 
ground, so that, because of their number, we imagined that not 
only had the eggs that were in the ground been hatched to our 
harm, but that the very air was vomiting them against us, and 
that they were descending from the sky upon us. When they 
were only able to crawl, they devoured and consumed all the 
Arab territory and all that of Ras-'ain J and Telia § and Edessa. 

* Apparently par/ieZj'a or mock suns. 

t Literally, on tJie south and west, in the very corner. A comet is probably 
meant. 

:J: Rish-'aina, 'P^craiva, in Arabic ..k*^ U^'J * 

§ Lj^]Q!LD'i (JZ. or ., ;*^ Jj, called by the Greeks Constantia or 



28 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

But after they were able to fly, the stretch of their radii was 
from the border of Assyria to the Western Sea (the Mediter- 
ranean), and they went northwards as far as the boundary of 
the Ortaye *. They ate up and desolated these districts and 
utterly consumed everything that was in them, so that, even 
before the war broke out, we could see with our own eyes what 
was said of the Babylonian "f, " The land is as the garden of 
Eden before him, and behind him a desolate wilderness." Had 
not the providence of God restrained them, they would have 
devoured human beings and cattle, as we have heard that they 
actually did in a certain village, where some people had put 
down a little baby in a field, while they were working; and 
before they got from one end of the field to the other, the 
locusts leaped upon it and deprived it of life, Presently after, 
in the month of JSisan (April), there began to be a dearth of corn 
and of everything else, and four modii of wheat were sold for a 
dinar. In the months of Khazirari (June) and Tammuz (July) 
the inhabitants of these districts were reduced to all sorts of 
shifts to live. They sowed millet for their own use, but it was 
not enough for them, because it did not thrive. Before the 
year came to an end, misery from hunger had reduced the 
people to beggary, so that they sold their property for half 
its worth, horses and oxen and sheep and pigs. And because 
the locusts had devoured all the crop, and left neither pasture 
nor food for man or beast, many forsook their native places and 
removed to other districts of the north and west. And the sick 
who were in the villages, as well as the old men and boys and 
women and infants, and those who were tortured by hunger, 
being unable to walk far and go to distant places, entered into 
the cities to get a livelihood by begging; and thus many 
villages and hamlets (agilrsd, dyp6<;) were left destitute of 
inhabitants. They did not, however, escape punishment, not 

Constantina, between Maridin and Edessa, westwards of Deyrik or Derik, at the 
place called Veranshehr. 

* The inhabitants of the district of Anzetend, whose chief town was "Av^-qra, 

•^pOl or k4-»]J|, LjjJkJb, in the south of Armenia. See Noeldeke in the 

Zcitschrift dcr D. M. G., Bd xxxiii, p. 1G3. 
t Joel, ch. ii. 3. 



FAMINE AT EDESSA. 29 

even those who went to far off places; but, as it is written 
concerning the Children of Israel*, ''Whithersoever they went 
out, the hand of the Lord was against them for evil," so also it 
fared with them ; for the pestilence came upon them in the 
places to which they went, and even overtook those who 
entered into Edessa ; about which I shall tell (thee) presently 
to the best of my ability, though no one, as I think, is able 
to describe it as it really w^as. 

XXXIX. Now, however, I am going to write to thee about 
the dearth, as thou didst ask me. I did not, it is true, wish to 
set down anything regarding this, but I have constrained 
myself to do so, that thou mightest not think that I treated 
thy order slightingly. Wheat was sold at this time at the rate 
of four modii for a dinar, and barley six modii. Chickpeas 
w^ere five hundred nilmiaf a kabj:; beans, four hundred numia 
a kab; and lentils, three hundred and sixty numia a kab ; but 
meat was not as yet dear. As time went on, however, the 
dearth became greater, and the pain of hunger afflicted the 
people more and more. Everything that was not edible was 
cheap §, such as clothes and household utensils and furniture, for 
these things were sold for a half or a third of their value (ri/xrj), 
and did not suffice for the maintenance of their owners, because 
of the great dearth of bread. At this time our father Mar 
Peter set out to visit the emperor (at Constantinople), in order 
to beg him to remit the tax (o-vvreXeia, capitatio). The 
governor II, however, laid hold of the landed proprietors If, and 

* Judges, ch. ii. lo. 

t The Syriac word is . i V>QJ , which may either be the phiral of [SDQJ , 
voufx/xos, nnmmus, or the word vov^lov itself. Hence too, in all probability, the 

form ^^^6, *lk:al. 

X *fa/3os, from the Hebrew ^p = x^'^^*-^- 

§ J2^-jQ_» is explained in Bar-Bahlfil's lexicon, and Hoffmann's Opuscula 
Nestoriana, p. 84, 1. 1, by ^5(, i.e. Pers. (j'Jj' , and Arabic L/=;t^J» cheap. 

II M-»?, the judge, here-PO^O .lOI, rjye/jLuu. 

H t-»*?Q-D t-iVlO, the Pers. Arab. ^^IfeJ, the dihkdns, regarding whom 
see Noeldeke, Qcick. d. Pcrser u. s. w., p. 351, note 1, and p. 440. 



30 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

used great violence to them and extorted it from them, so that, 
before the bishop could persuade the emperor, the governor had 
sent the money to the capital. When the emperor saw that 
the money had arrived, he did not like to remit it; but, in 
order not to send our father away empty, he remitted two 
folles* to the villagers, and the price which they were paying-|*, 
whilst he freed the citizens from the obligation of drawing 
water for the Greek soldiery |. 

XL. The governor himself too set out to visit the emperor, 
girt with his sword §, and left Eusebius to hold his post and 
govern the city. When this Eusebius saw that the bakers 
were not sufficient to make bread for the market, because of 
the multitude of country people, of whom the city was full, 
and because of the poor who had no bread in their houses, he 
gave an order that every one who chose might make bread 
and sell it in the market. And there came Jewish women, to 
whom he gave wheat from the public granary {aTroOerov), and 
they made bread for the market. But even so the poor were 
in straits, because they had not money wherewith to buy bread ; 
and they wandered about the streets and porticoes and court- 
yards to beg a morsel of bread, but there was no one in whose 
house bread was in superfluity. And when one of them had 
begged (a few) pence, but was unable to buy bread therewith, 
he used to purchase therewith a turnip or a cabbage {KpafiPrj) 
or a mallow {/maXd^Lov, ^oXoxi^ov), and eat it raw. And for this 
reason there was a scarcity of vegetables, and a lack of every- 
thing in the city and villages, so that people actually dared to 
enter the holy places and for sheer hunger to eat the con- 
secrated bread as if it had been common bread. Others cut 
pieces off dead carcases, that ought not to be eaten, and cooked 
and ate them ; to which things thou in thy truthfulness canst 
bear testimony. 

* «£Q-lS , i. e. 06X\ts, follis, Arab. iu».Si fuls, or juJi fals. See Noeldeke 
in the Z. d. D. M. G., Bd xxxv, p. 497. 

t There is evidently some error or omission here in the text. 

J So I translate the word | i V)00l'> in this passage, for ( > Vnonn^ 
frequently means nothing more than a {Roman or Greek) soldier. 

§ To show that he was still in office, and had not been deposed. 



FAMINE AND PLAGUE AT EDESSA. 31 

XLI. Tlie year 812 (a. d. 500—1). In this year, after the 
vintasre, wine was sold at the rate of six measures for a dinar, 
and a kab of raisins for three hundred numia. The famine 
was sore in the villages and in the city; for those who were left 
in the villages were eating bitter-vetches, and others were 
frying the withered fallen grapes* and eating them, though 
even of them there was not enough to satisfy them. And those 
who were in the city were wandering about the streets, picking 
up the stalks and leaves of vegetables, all filthy with mud, and 
eating them. They were sleeping in the porticoes and streets, 
and wailing by night and day from the pangs of hunger ; and 
their bodies wasted away, and they were in a sad plight, and 
became like jackals because of the leanness of their bodies. 
The whole city was full of them, and they began to die in the 
porticoes and in the streets. 

XLII. After the governor Demosthenes had gone up to 
the emperor, he informed him of this calamity ; and the 
emperor gave him no small sum of money to distribute among 
the poor. And when he came back from his presence to 
Edessa, he sealed many of them on their necks with leaden 
seals, and gave each of them a pound of bread a day. Still, 
however, they were not able to live, because they were tortured 
by the pangs of hunger, which wasted them away. The 
pestilence became worse about this time, namely the month of 
the latter Teshri (November) ; and still more in the month of 
the first Kanun (December), when there began to be frost and 
ice, because they were passing the nights in the porticoes and 
streets, and the sleep of death came upon them during their 
natural sleep. Children and babes were crying -|* in every street. 

* I in ^ Vnn evidently does not mean here "grapestones," but the small 
withered grapes that had fallen from the vines before attaining maturity; 

according to the glossaries, ^c^CUj (*f^^ irf^ y C-^-wi ^^ iailuJ Lo 
k a. aJ j <U^ ^ '— '^^, ^ <U-tf^ ^, or more briefly, ujjjio^l 

+ The Syriac word |^<^ , t«{yi3 , expresses the bleating of sheep. Compare 
ny^ in Isaiah, ch. xlii. 14. 



32 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

Of some the mothers were dead ; others their mothers had left, 
and had run away from them, when they asked for something 
to eat, because they had nothing to give them. Dead bodies 
were lying exposed in every street, and the citizens were not 
able to bury them, because, whilst they were carrying out the 
first that had died, the moment that they returned, they found 
others. By the care of Mar Nonnus, the ^evoSoxo^^, the 
brethren used afterwards to go about the city, and to collect 
these dead bodies. And all the people of the city used to 
assemble at the gate of the ^evoSoxetov, and go forth and bury 
them, from morning to morning. The stewards of the (Great) 
Church, the priest Mar Tewath-ilf and Mar Stratonicus (who 
some time afterwards was deemed worthy of the office cf bishop 
in the city of HarranJ), established an infirmary § among the 
buildings attached to the (Great) Church of Edessa. Those 
who were very ill used to go in and lie down there ; and many 
dead bodies were found in the infirmary §, which they buried 
along with those at the ^6voSo')(^6cov. 

XLIII. The governor blocked up|| the gates of the 
colonnades (^aatXiKal) attached to the winter bath {hrjixoaLov), 
and laid down in it straw and mats, and they used to sleep 
there, but it was not sufficient for them. When the grandees of 
the city saw this, they too established infirmaries, and many 
went in and found shelter in them. The Greek soldiers too set 
up places in which the sick slept, and charged themselves with 
their expenses. They died by a painful and melancholy death ; 
and though many of them were buried every day, the number 
still went on increasing. For a report had gone forth through- 

* The Syriac word \r^% 1 ODD is formed by putting the Latin termination 
arius to the Greek word in the text. The Syrians added the same appendage to 

a Persian word, jja^^l « j^illar, (;.Ja^£D( a sty lite; and even to the 

native word (^ ^ ; a boat or ship, whence ]; <^ n^ ^ a boatman or sailor. 

t Assemani Bibl. Orient., t. i, p. 271, col. 2, writes Tutacl, \l^\LoLf 
on what authority I do not know. 

J See Le Quien, Oriens Christ., t. ii, col. 977. 

§ See the notes on the Syriac text, chapters xlii and xUii. 

II In the native glossaries the word w2)^ID is explained by J^^ and Jui>|« . 



FAMINE AND PLAGUE AT EDESSA. 33 

out the province of Edessa, that the EJessenes took good care 
of those who were in want ; and for this reason a countless 
multitude of people entered the city. The bath {jBakave'iov) 
too that was under the Church of the Apostles*, beside the 
Great Gate'f', was full of sick, and many dead bodies were carried 
forth from it every day. All the inhabitants of the city were 
careful to attend in a body the funeral of those who were 
carried forth from the ^evoSo-^elov, with psalms and hymns and 
spiritual songs that were full of the hope of the resurrection. 
The women too (were there) with bitter weeping and loud 
cries. And at their head went the diligent shepherd Mar 
Peter ; and with them too was the governor, and all the nobles. 
When these were buried, then every one came back, and 
accompanied the funeral of those who had died in his own 
neighbourhood. And when the graves of the ^evoSoxecov and 
the Church were full, the governor went forth and opened the 
old graves that were beside the church of Mar KonaJ, which 
had been constructed by the ancients with great pains, and 
they filled them. Then they opened others, and they were not 
sufficient for them ; and at last they opened any old grave, no 
matter what, and filled it. For more than a hundred bodies 
were carried out every day from the ^evoB 0-^(^6 cov, and many a 
day a hundred and twenty, and up to a hundred and thirty, 
from the beginning of the latter Teshri (November) till the end 
of Adar (March). During that time nothing could be heard in 
all the streets of the city but either weeping over the dead or 
the lamentable cries of those in pain. Many too were dying in 
the courts of the (Great) Church, and in the courts of the city 
and in the inns§: and they were dying also on the roads, as 
they were coming to enter the city. In the month of Shebat 
(February) too the dearth was very great, and the pestilence 

* See Assemdni, Bibl. Orient., t. i, p. 403, lines 8 — 13. 

t See above, p. 26, note §. 

t Koj'os or Kovvos, or perhaps Kovcov, bishop of Edessa, who died in, or soon 
after, A. Gr. 024 = a. d. 312—13. See Assemani, Bibl. Orient., t. i, p. 271, col. 2; 
p. 393, no. xii; p. 424, no. i; Le Quien, Oriens Christ., t. ii, col. 955. 

§ Or khans. The word (-OZO-S comes from the Greek iravdoKdov, waudo- 

Xctoi', in Arabic JjJuo, whence in Spanish /o?i(ia, but also alhondiga, Ital. 
fondaco. 

J. S. e 



34 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

increased. Wheat was sold at the rate of thirteen kabs for 
a dinar, and barley eighteen kabs. A pound of meat was a 
hundred numia, and a pound of fowl three hundred numia, and 
an egg forty numia. In short there was a dearth of every- 
thing edible. 

XLIV. There were public prayers in the month of Adar 
(March) on account of the pestilence, that it might be restrained 
from the strangers {^evioi) ; and the people of the city, while 
interceding on their behalf, resembled the blessed David when 
he was saying to the Angel who destroyed his people *, " If I 
have sinned and have done perversely, wherein have these 
innocent sheep sinned ? Let thy hand be against me and 
against my father's house." In the month of Nisan (April) the 
pestilence began among the people of the city, and many biers 
were carried out in one day, but no one could tell their number. 
And not only in Edessa was this sword of the pestilence, but 
also from Antioch as far as Nisibis the people were destroyed 
and tortured in the same way by famine and pestilence. Many 
of the rich died, who were not starved ; and many of the 
grandees too died in this year. In the months of Khaziran 
(June) and Tammuz (July), after the harvest, we thought that 
we might now be relieved from dearth. However our expecta- 
tions were not fulfilled as we thought, but the wheat of the 
new harvest was sold so dear as five modii for a dinar. 

XLV. The year 813 (a.d. 501—2). After these afflictions 
of locusts and famine and pestilence, about which I have 
written to thee, a little respite was granted us by the mercy of 
God, that we might be able to endure what was to come, as we 
learned from the actual facts. There was an abundant vintage, 
and wine from the press was sold at the rate of twenty-five 
measures for a dinar ; and the poor were amply supplied from 
the vineyards by means of the crop of dried grapes. For the 
husbandmen and farmers said that the crop of dried grapes was 
more abundant than that of wheat, because there was a hot 
wind when the grapes began to ripen, and the greater part of 
them dried up. By the discreet it was said that this took place 
by the good providence of God, the Lord of all, and that this 
thing was a mingling of mercy with chastisement, that the 

* 2 Samuel, ch. xxiv. 17. 



FAMINE AT EDESSA. 35 

villagers might be supported by this supply of dried grapes, and 
not die of hunger as in the past year; because at this time 
wheat was sold at the rate of only four modii for a dinar, and 
barley six modii. During the two Teshris (October and 
November) there was the following sign of mercy. The whole 
winter of this year was excessively rainy ; and the seed that was 
sown shot up here and there to more than the height of a man, 
before the month of Nisan (April) was come. Even barren 
spots of land produced nearly as much as those that were sown. 
The very roofs of the houses produced much grass, which some 
people reaped and sold like the dog's grass * of the fields ; and 
because it had spikes and was of the full height, the buyers did 
not perceive (the difference). We were expecting and hoping 
this year too that corn w^ould be very cheap f, as in the years of 
old ; but our hopes came to nought, for in the month of lyar 
(May) there blew a hot wind for three days, and all the corn of 
our land was dried up save in a few places. 

XL VI. In this month, when the day came on which the 
wicked festival of the tales of the (ancient) Greeks J was held, 
of which we have spoken above, there came an edict from the 
emperor Anastasius that the dancers {opxv^'^^O should not dance 
any more, not even in a single city throughout his empire. 
Any one, therefore, who looks to the issue of things, will not 
blame us because of our having said that, by reason of the 
wickedness which the people of the city perpetrated at this 
festival, the chastisements of hunger and pestilence came upon 
us in succeSvsion. For, behold, within thirty days after it was 
abolished, wheat, which had been sold at the rate of four modii 
for a dinar, was sold at the rate of twelve ; and barley, which 
had been sold at the rate of six, was sold at the rate of twenty- 
two. And it was clearly made known to every one, that the will 
of God is able to bless a small crop, and to give abundance to 
those who repent of their sins ; for although the whole crop of 
grain was dried up, as I have said, yet from the little remnant 
that was left came all this relief within thirty days. Perhaps, 

* t-»-^^^Vw probably dypucms, triticvm repens or "dog's grass", (J-jili • 

t See p. 29, note §. 

X Of course t-»-JQ_j , the lonians, not ] i 'POOl?, the Byzantines. 



36 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

however, even now some one may say that I have not reasoned 
well, for this repentance was in no wise a voluntary one, that 
mercy should be shown for it, seeing that it was the emperor 
who abolished the festival by force, in that he ordered that the 
dancers should not dance at all. We, on the contrar}^, say that 
God, because of the multitude of His goodness, was seeking an 
occasion to show mercy even unto those who were not worthy. 
Of this we have a proof from the fact that He had mercy upon 
Ahab, when he was put to shame by the rebuke of Elijah, and 
did not bring in his days the evil which had been before decreed 
against his house *. I do not, however, by any means assert 
that this was the only sin which was perpetrated in our city, for 
many were the sins that were wrought secretly and openly ; but 
because the rulers too participated in them, I do not choose to 
specify these sins distinctly, that I may not give occasion to 
those who like it of finding fault and of saying of me that I 
speak against the chiefs. That I may not, however, leave the 
matter in complete obscurity, — because I promised above to 
make known unto thee w^hence this war was stirred up against 
us, — and that I may not moreover say aught against the 
offenders, I will (merely) set down the words of the Prophet, 
from which thou mayest understand (my meaning), who, when 
he saw his fellow-citizens committing acts like these which are 
this day committed in our city, especially where you live, 
and throughout the whole province (xoopa) , said unto them as if 
from the mouth of the Lord "j- : " Woe unto him that saith to the 
father. What begettest thou ? and to the woman, Wherewith 
travailest thou ? " About other matters it is better to be silent, 
for it is fitting to hearken to the passage of Scripture which 
Fays j : " Let him that is prudent keep silence in that time, 
because it is a time of evil." But if our Lord grants that we 
see thee in health, we will speak with thee of these things 
according as we are able. 

XLVII. Now then listen to the calamities that happened 
in this year, and to the sign that appeared on the day when 
they happened, for this too thou hast required at my hands. 
On the 22d of Ab (August) in this year, on the night preceding 

* 1 Kings, ch. xxi. 29. t Isaiah, ch. xlv. 10. 

X Amos, cli. V. 13. 



AURORA. EARTHQUAKE. PERSIAN INVASION. 37 

Friday *, a great fire appeared to us blazing in the northern 
quarter the whole night, and we thought that the whole earth 
was going to be destroyed that night by a deluge of fire; but 
the mercy of our Lord preserved us without harm. We 
received, however, a letter from some acquaintances of ours, who 
were travelling to Jerusalem, in which it was stated that, on 
the same night in which that great blazing fire appeared, the 
city of Ptolemais or 'Akko-f- w^as overturned, and nothing in it 
left standing. Again, a few days after, there came unto us some 
Tyrians and Sidonians, and told us that, on the very same day 
on which the fire appeared and Ptolemais was overturned, the 
half of their cities fell, namely of Tyre and Sidon. In Ber^tus 
(Beirut) only the synagogue of the Jews fell down on the day 
when 'Akko was overturned. The people of Nicomedia (in 
Bithynia) were delivered over to Satan to be chastised, and 
many of them were tormented by demons, until they remem- 
bered the words of our Lord J, and persevered in fasting and 
prayer, and received healing. 



XLVIIL On the very same day on which that fire was 
seen, Kawad, the son of Peroz, the king of the Persians, 
collected the whole Persian army, and went up against the 
north. He entered the Greek territory with the force of Huns 
that he had with him, and encamped against Theodosiupolis of 
Armenia §, and took it in a few days ; for the governor of the 
place, whose name was Constantine, rebelled against the Greeks, 
and surrendered it, because of some enmity that he had against 
the emperor. Kawad consequently plundered the city, and 
destroyed and burned it; and he laid waste all the villages in 
the region of the north, and the fugitives that were left he 
carried off captive. Constantine he made one of his generals, 
and left a garrison in Theodosiupolis, and marched thence. 

* Wc would say, "on Tliursclay niglit." This display of the aurora borealis 
Diust have been unusually ma^niHccnt. 

t In Arabic oLc , corrupted by us and the French into Acre. 

t S. Matthew, eh. xvii, 21. § a* j\ (oj >' > Erzcrum. 



38 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

XLIX. The year 814 (a.d. 502—3). On the region of 
Mesopotamia also, in which we dwell, great calamities weighed 
heavily in this year, so that the things which Christ our Lord 
decreed in His Gospel against Jerusalem, and actually brought 
to pass, and the things too which have been spoken regarding 
the end of this world, would be well fitting to those which befel 
us at this time. For after there had been earthquakes in 
various places, as I have written unto thee, and famines and 
pestilences, and alarms and terrors, and after great signs had 
been shown from heaven, nation arose against nation and 
kingdom against kingdom, and we fell by the edge of the 
sword, and were led away captive into every region, and our 
land was trampled under foot by strange nations ; so that, had 
it not been for the words of our Lord, who has said *, " When ye 
hear of wars and tumults, be ye not afraid, for these things must 
needs first come to pass, but the end is not yet come," we would 
have dared to say that the end of the world was come, because 
many thought and said thus. But we ourselves reflected that 
this war did not extend over the whole world ; and besides we 
remembered too the words of S. Paul, wherewith he warned the 
Thessalonians "f* concerning the coming of our Lord, saying that 
they should not be astonied either by word, or by spirit, or by 
beguiling epistle, as if it were from him, declaring the day of 
the Lord to be now come ; and (how) he showed that it is not 
possible that the end should be until the false Christ is 
revealed. From these words then of our Lord and of His 
Apostle we understood that these, things did not befal us 
because it was the latter time, but that they took place for our 
chastisement, because our sins were great. 

L. Kawad, the king of the Persians, came from the north 
on the fifth of the first Teshri (October), on a Saturday, and 
encamped against the city of Amid, which is beside us in 
Mesopotamia, he and his whole army. When Anastasius, the 
Greek emperor, heard that Kawad had collected his forces, he 
was unwilling to meet him in battle, that blood might not be 
shed on both sides ; but he sent him money by the hand of 
Rufinus, to whom he gave orders that, if Kawad was on the 
frontier and had not yet crossed over into the Greek territory, 
* S. Matthew, ch. xxiv. G. + 2 Thessalonians, eh. ii. 2, 3. 



SIEGE OF AMID BY THE PERSIANS. 39 

h^ should give liim the money and send him away. But when 
Rufinus came to Caesarea of Cappadocia, and heard that 
Kawad had laid waste Agel* and Siiph*!* and Armenia and the 
Arabs :[:, he left the money at Caesarea, and went to him, and 
told him that he should recross the border and take the money. 
He however would not, but seized Rufinus and ordered him to 
be kept under guard. He fought against Amid, he and his 
whole army, with every manner of warfare, by night and by 
day, and built against it (the mound called) a mule§; but the 
people of Amid built and added to the height of the wall. 
When the mule was raised high, the Persians applied the 
battering-ram || ; and after they had struck the wall violently, 
the part newly built became loosened, because it had not yet 
settled, and fell. But the Amidenes dug a hole in the wall 
under the mule, and secretly drew away inside the city the 
earth which was heaped up to form it, propping it up with 
beams as they worked ; and so the mule collapsed and fell. 

LI. When Kawad found that he was not a match for the 
city, he sent Na'man,1[ the king of the Arabs (of al-Hirah), with 
his whole force, to go southwards to the district of Harran**. 
Some of the Persian troops advanced as far as the city of 

* ^\-»-.i j , ' AyyCk-rjvr), i^r^XA , Egil or Enjil^ north of Diyar-bekr. 

^ ... 

t sJ2)0t , the people of which are ^j-JL^Ot , ^ucprjvi^ or ^(i}(pavrjV7}f 

adjacent to Agel. 

:J: Meaning here the most northern of the nomade Arabs of Mesopotamia, 
^JOU t i n? ^:D;_L or ]-tk)Oai55 ^C^;^. 

§ In Syriac \L2jCLD, a huge mound of earth, which Procopius {de hello 
Persico, 1. 7) calls Xo^os. 

II Literally, "the ram'a head." 

H The Arabs write the name ^l^ojtJJl j an-Ndman, and some Syriac authors 

too give —lULQJ. The person in question is an-No'mS,n III, ibn al-Aswad, 
who reigned from a.d. 498 to 503. See Caussin dc Perceval, Essai sur Vhistoire 
des Arabes, t. ii, p. G7, and Ileiske, Primae lineae historiae refjnorum Arabicorum, 
ed. Wtistenfeld, p. 42. 

mHj rJ-^J) Xappav, Xappd, Kappa, Kappalf Carrac, still retains its ancient 
name of ^oS^- > Harrdn. 



40 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

Constantina or Telia*, and were plundering and harrying and 
laying waste the whole country. On the 19th of the latter 
Teshri (November) Olympius "f, the dux J of Telia, and 
Eugenius, the dux of Melitene§ (who had come down at that 
time), went forth, they and their troops, and destroyed the 
Persians whom they found in the villages around Telia. And 
when they had turned to go back to the city, some one told 
them that there were five hundred men in a ravine not very far 
from them. They were ready to go against them, but the 
Greek troops that were with them had dispersed themselves 
to strip the slain ; and because it was night, Olympius gave 
orders to light a fire on the top of an eminence and to blow 
trumpets, that those who were scattered might rejoin them. 
But the Persian generals, who were encamped at the village 
of Tell Beshmai||, when they saw^ the light of the fire and heard 
the sound of the trumpets, armed all their force and came 
against them. When the Greek cavalry saw that the Persians 
were too many for them, they turned (their backs) ; but the 
infantry were unable to escape and were constrained to fight. 
So they came together and drew up in battle array, forming 
what is called the %eXcwi^7? or tortoise, and fought for a long 
time. But as the army of the Persians was too many for them, 
and there were added to these the Huns and Arabs, their ranks 
were broken, and they were thrown into disorder, and mixed 
up among the cavalry, and trampled and crushed under the 
hoofs If of the horses of the Arabs. So many of the Greeks 
were killed, and the rest were made prisoners. 

LIT. On the 26th of this month Na'man came from the 
south and entered the territory of the Harranites, and laid 
waste and plundered and took captive the people and cattle 

* See above, p. 27, note §. 

t Some authorities call him Alypius, which would be wi'itten in Syriac 

X Aov^=r]y€iJ.cop, dpxcou. See Du Cange. 
§ Now Malatyah, ^LLo . 



O -^ w^ 



II Tell Beshmai or Tell Besmai, JL/OuuuJ ^) west of Miiriain, near Deyrik 
or Derik. 

H The Syriac text has in the dust, jj-^LUD- 



RAID ON HARRAN AND EDESSA. SIEGE OF AMID. 41 

and property of the whole territory of Harran. He came also 
as far as Edessa, harrying and plundering and taking captive 
all the villages. The number of persons whom he led away 
into captivity was 18,500, besides those who were killed, and 
besides the cattle and property and spoil of all kinds. The 
reason that all these people were found in the villages was its 
being the time of the vintage, for not only did the villagers go 
out to the vintage, but also many of the Harranites and 
Edessenes went out, and were taken prisoners. Because of 
these things Edessa was closed and guarded, and ditches* were 
dug, and the wall was repaired ; and the gates of the city were 
stopped upi* with blocks of stone, because they were decayed. 
They were going to put new ones, and to make bars (//,o;^Xot) 
for the sluices (KarappaKTai) of the river, lest any one should 
enter thereby ^ ; but they could not find iron enough for the 
work, and an order was issued that every house in Edessa 
should furnish ten pounds of iron. When this was done, the 
work was finished. When Eugenius saw that he could not 
meet all the Persians (in battle), he took what troops were 
left him, and went against the garrison which they had at 
Theodosiupolis, and destroyed those who were in it, and retook 
the town. 

LIII. Kawad was still fighting against Amid, and strivmg 
and labouring to set up again the mule that had fallen in§. 
He ordered the Persians to fill it up with stones and beams, and 
to bring cloths of hair and wool and linen, and make them into 
bags II or sacks, and fill them with earth, and pile them up on 
the mule which they had made, so that it might be raised 
quickly against the wall. Then the Amidenes constructed 

* (XQ^, (poffaai, fossae. Hence bUxuu-fiiji j i.e. to (poaaaroy or ^uaaarov. 
See Du Cange. 

t See p. 32, note i|. 

t At this time the Daisan ran through the city, not round it. See above, 
p. 18, note X'f and compare Assemani, Bibl. Orient., t. i, p. 391, 1. 7. 

§ See ch. 1, at the end. 

II (^ I \ • is explained in the native glossaries by (j^^j ,^Um^) ^1^^, 

and <,_ r'A *. , which last is of course borrowed from the Syriac. 

J. s. / 



42 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

a machine which the Persians named " the Crusher " *, because 
it thwarted all their labour and destroyed themselves. For the 
Amidenes cast with this engine huge stones, each of which 
weighed more than three hundred pounds ; and so the cotton 
awnins^ under which the Persians concealed themselves was rent 
in pieces, and those who were standing beneath it were crushed. 
The battering ram too was broken by the constant shower of 
stones which were cast without cessation ; for the Amidenes 
were not able to damage the Persians so much in any other way 
as by means of large stones, because of the cotton awning which 
was folded many times over (the mule). Upon this the 
Persians used to pour water, and it could neither be damaged 
by arrows on account of its thickness, nor by fire because it was 
damp. But these large stones that were hurled from ''the 
Crusher" destroyed both awning and men and weapons. In 
this way the Persians were discomfited, and gave up working 
at the mule, and took counsel to return to their own country, 
because, during the three months that they had sat before it, 
50,000 of them had perished in the battles that were fought 
daily both by night and day. But the Amidenes became over- 
confident in their victory, and fell into careless ways, and did 
not guard the wall with the same diligence as before. On 
the 10th of the month of the latter Kanun (January) the 
guardians of the wall drank a great deal of wine because of the 
cold, and when it was night, they fell asleep and w^ere sunk in a 
heavy slumber ; and some of them quitted their posts, because 
it was raining, and went down to seek shelter in their houses. 
Whether then through this remissness, as we think, or by an act 
of treachery, as people said, or as a chastisement from God, 
the Persians got possession of the walls of Amid by means of a 
ladder, without the gates being opened or the wall breached. 
They laid waste the city, and sacked all the property in it, and 
trampled the eucharist under foot, and mocked at its service, 
and stripped bare its churches, and led its inhabitants into 

* L»s>vf:iQ-Z is a pure Syriac formation from the radical «_kk£IL^ , H^tO 
destruction, injury, mischief", in later times ^\JJ , tahah. 



CAPTURE OF AMID. RELEASE OF RUFINUS. 43 

captivity, except the old and the maimed and those who hid 
themselves. They left there a garrison of three thousand men, 
and all (the rest) of them went down to the mountains of 
Shigar*. That the Persians who remained might not be 
annoyed by the smell of the dead bodies of the Amidenes, they 
carried them out and piled them up in two heaps outside of the 
north gate. The number of those v»^ho were carried out by the 
north gate was more than 80,000 ; besides those whom they led 
forth alive and stoned outside of the city, and those whom they 
stabbed on the top of the mule that they had constructed, and 
those who were thrown into the Tigris (Deklath), and those who 
died by all sorts of deaths, regarding which we are unable 
to speak. 

LIV. Then Kawad let Rufinus go, that he might go and 
tell the emperor what had been done ; and he was speaking of 
these atrocities everywhere, and by these reports the cities to 
the east of the Euphrates were alarmed, and (their inhabitants) 
made ready to flee to the west. The honoured Jacob -f , the perio- 
deutes, who has composed many homilies on passages of the 
Scriptures, and written various poems and hymns regarding the 
time of the locusts, was not neglectful at this time too of his 
duty, but wrote letters of admonition to all the cities, bidding 
them trust in the Divine deliverance, and exhorting them not 
to flee. The emperor Anastasius too, when he heard this, sent a 
large army of Greek soldiers to winter in the cities and garrison 
them. All the booty that he had taken, and the captives that 
he had carried off, were not, however, enough for Kawad, nor 
was he sated with the great quantity of blood that he had shed; 
but he (again) sent ambassadors to the emperor, saying, 

* Shigar or Shiggar, 'Ziuyapa, ZiYycLpa, Arab, .Is^UUs Siiijdr. 

t Jacob, at present periodeutes or visitor, afterwards bisho]) of Batnan 

(BaVvat, Batnae) in SSrug, «- •^ , one of the most prolific of Syriac writers. He 

died A. Gr. 833 (a.d. 521). See Assemani, Bihl. Orient., t. i, p. 283 sqq.; 
Abbeloos, Be vita et scriptis S. Jacobi Sarugensis ; Matagne in the Acta 
Sanctorum for October, t. xii, p. 824, with the supplement, p. 927; Bickell, 
Conspectus rei Syrorum literariae, p. 25. Compare also Wright, Catalogue of the 
Sijriac MSS. in the Brit. Mas., p. 502 sqq. The volume Add. 14,587, contains 
several of the letters referred to in the text ; op. cit., p. 518 sqq. On the word 

irepioSiVT-fis, in Syriac \jCt SrO, see Du Cangc. 



44 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

" Send me the money or accept war." This was in the month of 
Nisan (April). The emperor, however, did not send the money, 
but made preparations to avenge himself and to exact satisfaction 
for those who had perished. In the month of lyar (May) he 
sent against him three generals, Areobindus ('Apeo/SivSo^;), 
Patricius, and Hypatius, and many officers with them*. Areo- 
bindus went down and encamped on the border by Dara and 
'Ammudin -[•, towards the city of Nisibis ; he had with him 
12,000 men. Patricius and Hypatius encamped against Amid, 
to drive out thence the Persian garrison ; they had with them 
40,000 men. There came down too at this time the hyparch I 
Appion §, and dwelt at Edessa, to look after the provisioning of 
the Greek troops that were with them. As the bakers were not 
able to make bread enough, he ordered that wheat should be 
supplied to all the houses of Edessa and that they should make 
soldiers' bread || at their own cost. The Edessenes turned out 
at the first baking 630,000 modii. 

LV. When Kawad saw that those who were with Areo- 
bindus were few in number, he sent against them the troops 
that he had with him in Shigar, (namely) 20,000 Persians ; but 
Areobindus routed them once and again, until they were driven 
to the gate of Nisibis, and many of the fugitives were suffocated 
at the gate as they were pressing to get in. In the month of 
Tammuz (July) the Huns and Arabs joined the Persians to 
come against him, with Constantine (see ch. xlviii) at their 
head. When he learned this from spies, he sent Calliopius 
the Aleppine to Patricius and Hypatius, saying, " Come to me 
and help me, because a large army is about to come against me." 
They, however, did not listen to him, but stayed where they 
were beside Amid. When the Persians came against the army 
of Areobindus, he could not contend with them, but left his 
camp, and made his escape to Telia and Edessa ; and all their 
baggage H was plundered and carried off. 

* See Lebeau, op. cit., t. vii, p. 354. 

t To ' AjjLfjidjSLos x(^P^ov, Ammodia, 'Amudlyah, southwestwards from DarS. 

X Commissary-general, x^pvyos ttjs tov arparoTridov dawavT]^. See Du Cange. 

§ See Lebeau, op. cit., t. vii, p. 356. 

II /Sou/ceXXctroj', ^ovKeXdrov, huccellatum. See Du Cange. 

II This must be the meaning of the word |,*^^ in this passage; very 
similar to Uf^' Xl^^^ij^. 



SIEGE OF AMID BY THE GREEKS. ARAB RAIDS. 45 

LVI. The troops of Patricius and Hypatius were (mean- 
while) constructing three towers of wood, wherewith to scale 

A 

the walls of Amid. But when they had finished building the 
towers at a great expense, and they were girded with iron so as 
not to be harmed by anything, then they found out what had 
happened on the frontier, and they burned the towers, and de- 
parted thence, and went after the Persians but did not overtake 
them. One of the officers, whose name was Pharazman*, and 
another named Theodore '^, sent by stratagem a flock of sheep 
to pass by Amid, while they and their troops lay in ambush. 

A 

When the Persians saw the sheep from within Amid, about four 
hundred chosen men of them sallied forth to carry them off; 
but the Greeks who were lying in ambush arose and destroyed 
them, and took their leader alive. He promised them that 
he would give up Amid to them, and for this reason Patricius 
and Hypatius returned thither ; but when that general was 
unable to fulfil his promise, because those in the city would not 
be persuaded by him, the generals ordered him to be impaled. 

LVII. The Arabs of the Persian territory advanced as far 
as the Khabur J, and Timostratus the dux (Souf) of Callinicus§, 
went out against them and routed them. The Arabs of the Greek 
territory also, who are called the Tha'labites ||, went to HirtaH 

* See Lebeau, op. cit., t. vii, p. 355. t Ibid., pp. 343, 357. 

X (JQ^-KJ, XajSwpas, 'A^WjOas, etc., . »j\.snji. 

§ The same as ar-Eakkah, djjj\. 

II The Benu Tha labah, <Uojcj yu ? the leading branch of the great tribe of 
Bekr ibn Wail (Wustenfeld, Tabellen, 2te Abth., b,c), who, in alliance with the 
southern tribe of Kindah {ibid., Iste Abth., 4), occupied a large portion of the 
Syrian desert, between the kingdom of al-Hirah on the east and that of the 
Ghassanides on the west. They were ruled over by the kings of Kindah, of the 
house of Akil al-morar, and the reigning king at this time was al-Harith ibn 
'Amr. See Lebeau, op. cit., t. vii, p. 250; Caussin de Perceval, Essai sur Vhistoire 
des Arabes, t. ii, p. 69; Reiske, Primae Lineae, p. 98; and above all the sketch 
by my lamented friend Dr. 0. Loth, at p. 10 of the pamphlet entitled " Otto Loth. 
Ein Gedenkblatt fUr seine Freunde. 1881." 

H (1.9 (,>^, \Lf.x,.Kt , X ^'Kr [\\ , al-Hirah, the chief town of the petty kingdom 

of the Lakhmite Arabs. See Caussin de Perceval, Essai sur Vhistoire des Arabes, 
t. ii, p. 1 sqq. ; Reiske, Primae Lineae, p. 25 sqq. It lay within a few miles of 
the more modern town of al-Kufah. 



46 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

(the capital) of Na'man, and found a caravan which was going 

up to him, and camels that were carrying up to him * 

They fell upon them and destroyed them and took the camels, 
but they did not make any stay at al-Hirah, because its 
inhabitants had withdrawn into the inner desert f. Again, in 
the month of Ab (August), the whole Persian army assembled, 
along with the Huns and the Kadishaye and the Armenians, 
and came against Opadna |. Patricius and his troops heard of 
this, and arose to go against them ; but while the Greeks were 
yet on the march, and not drawn up for battle, the Persians met 
the vanguard and smote them. When these who were beaten 
fell back, the rest of the Greek army saw that the vanguard was 
smitten, and fear fell upon them, and they did not wait to fight, 
but Patricius himself was the first to turn, and all his army 
after him. They crossed the Euphrates, and made their escape 
to the city of Shemishat§. In this battle Na'man too, the 
king of the Persian Arabs, was wounded. One of the Greek 
officers, whose name was Peter, fled to the castle of Ashparin || ; 
and when the Persians surrounded the castle, the inhabitants 
were afraid of them, and gave him up to them, and the 
Persians took him away prisoner. They slew the Greek 
soldiers who were with him, but the people of the castle they 
did not harm in any way. 

LVIII. Kawad, the king of the Persians, was thinking of 
going against Areobindus to Edessa; for Na'man, the king of 

* The word in the Syriac text, if correctly written, is wholly unknown to me ; 
but it is evidently the name of some valuable commodity. 

t This seems to be the meaning of the Syriac; literally, "because it had 
entered into the inner desert." I suspect that the whole sentence is corrupt. 

O '' J 

X Noeldeke has identified this place with JiXaIU al-Fudain, which is 

described by Yakut in his ^1 jdjkll mSS^x^ as being "a village on the bank of the 

Khabur, between Makisin and Karkisiya {KLpK-rjo-iov), where a battle was fought." 
But Hoffmann thinks that the place meant is to 'Awddvas of Procopius {de 
Aedijiciis, ii. 4), which he is inclined to identify with Tell Abad, N.W. of Kafr 
J6z in Tur'Abdin. 

3- " 

II To 'Zi(ppLos x^P'-o^ OJ* KaffTpov''Ia(ppios, Sij)hris or Sijfrcas. See Saint-Martin's 
note in Lebeau, op. cit., t. vii, p. 359. It must have been situated near Derik 
and Tell Besmeh. 



DEATH OF NA'mAN. SIEGE OF TELLA. 47 

the Arabs, kept urging him on because of what had happened 
to his caravan (see ch. Ivii). But a shaikh from Hirta of 
Na'man, who was a Christian, answered and said : " Let not 
your majesty take the trouble of going to war against Edessa, 
because there is the infallible word of Christ, whom we worship, 
regarding it, that no enemy shall ever make himself master of 
it" (see ch. v). When Na'man heard this, he threatened that 
he would do at Edessa worse thing^s than had been done at 
Amid, and uttered blasphemous w^ords. And Christ showed a 
manifest sign in him, for at the very time when he blasphemed, 
the wound which he had received on his head swelled, and his 
whole head became swollen, and he arose and went to his tent, 
and lingered in this pain for two days and died *. Not even 
this sign, however, restrained the wicked mind of Kawad from 
his evil purpose ; but he set up a king in place of Na'man, 
and arose and went to battle. When he came to Telia, he 
encamped against it ; and the Jews who were there plotted to 
surrender the city to him. They dug a hole in the tower of 
their synagogue, which had been committed to them to guard, 
and sent word to the Persians regarding it that they might dig 
into it (from the outside) and enter by it. This was found out 
by the count (ko/jltj^;, comes) Peter, who was in captivity (see ch. 
Ivii), and he persuaded those who were guarding him to let him 
come near the wall, saying that there were clothes and articles 
of his of different kinds which he had left in the city, and 
he wished to ask the Tellenes to give them to him. The 
guards granted his request and let him go near. He said to the 
soldiers who were standing on the wall to call the count 
Leontius, who at that time had charge of the city, and they 
called him and the officers. Peter spoke with them in Greek, 
and disclosed to them the treachery of the Jews. In order that 
the matter might not become known to the Persians, he asked 
them to give him a pair of trousers "f". They at first made a 
pretence of being angry with him ; but afterwards they threw 

* Of erysipelas, the natural re.sult of his wound and of exposure or 
excitement. 

J O ^ -^ '' ^. o " 

t Compare in Arabic /jl*j -r" 5 *» ' ^* i^^"' <'/ sandals; jJj»iw-o (J'^-jt 

^ -' *^ ^ ^^ * ^ 

a pair of trousers. 



48 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

dowu to him from the wall a pair of trousers, because in reality 
he had need of clothes to wear. Then they went down from 
the wall, and as if they had learned nothing about the treachery 
of the Jews and did not know which was the place, they went 
round and examined the foundations of the whole wall, as if 
they wished to see whether it required strengthening. This 
they did for the sake of Peter, lest the Persians might become 
aware that he had disclosed the thing and might treat him 
much worse. At last they came to the place which the Jews 
were guarding, and found that it was mined, and that they had 
made ready in the centre of the tower a great hole, as they had 
been told. When the Greeks saw what was there, they salUed 
out against them with great fury, and went round the whole 
city, and killed all the Jews whom they could find, men and 
women, old men and children. This they did for (several) 
days, and they would scarcely cease from killing them at the 
order of the count Leontius and the entreaty of the blessed 
Bar-hadad* the bishop. They guarded the city carefully by 
night and by day, and the holy Bar-hadad himself used to 
go round and visit them and pray for them and bless them, 
commending their care and encouraging them, and sprinkling 
holy water -f on them and on the wall of the city. He also 
carried with him on his rounds the eucharist, in order to let 
them receive the mystery at their stations, lest for this reason 
any one of them should quit his post and come down from the 
wall. He also went out boldly to the king of the Persians 
and spoke with him and appeased him. When Kawad saw 
the dignified bearing of the man, and perceived too the vigil- 
ance of the Greeks, it seemed to him of no use to remain 
idle before Telia with all that host which he had with him ; 
firstly, because sustenance could not be found for it in a dis- 
trict that had already been ravaged ; and secondly, because 
he was afraid lest the Greek generals might join one another 
and come against him in a body. For these reasons he 
moved off quickly towards Edessa, and encamped by the river 

* BapaSaros or BapdSoros, equivalent to the biblical Hin"!!!!? Ben-Hudad. 

See Lebeau, op. cit., t. vii, p, 3G3; Le Quien, Oriens Christ., t. ii, col. 968. 
t Literally, "the water of {i.e., used in) baptism." 



PREPARATIOXS OF THE EDESSENES FOR A SIEGE. 49 

Galldb*, otherwise called (the river) of the Medes, for about 
twenty days. 

LIX. Some of the more daring men in his army traversed 
the district and laid it waste. On the 6th of llul (September) 
the Edessenes pulled down all the convents and inns that were 
close to the wall, and burned the village of Kephar Selem "[", also 
called Negbath. They cut down all the hedges of the gardens 
and parks that were around, and felled the trees which were in 
them. They brought in the bones of all the martyrs (from the 
churches) which were around the city; and set up engines on 
the wall, and tied coverings of haircloth over the battlements J. 
On the 9th of this month Kawad sent a message to Areobindus, 
that he should either receive into the city his general (rtiarzehdn)^ 
or come out to him into the plain, as he wished to conclude a 
treaty of peace with him. He gave secret orders however to 
his troops that, if Areobindus allowed them to enter the city, 
they should turn and seize the gate and entrance §, until he 
could come and enter after them ; and that, if he came forth to 
them, they should lie in ambush for him and carry him off alive 
and bring him to him. But Areobindus, because he was afraid 
to allow them to enter the city, went forth to them outside, 
without going very far from the city, but (only) as far as the 

* In Arabic C-^iLs-, Julldh. It lies to the E. of Edessa, and runs south- 
wards into the Balikh, receiving the DaisUn or Kara Koyun from the right a 

little below Harr^n. It is not quite certain whether |-»r^? really means "of 
the Medes." 

t I.e., "the %-illage of the statue." Its exact site is not known to me, but it 
must have lain to the E. of the city, not far from the walls. 

ij: Martin gives ]A » V v both here and in ch. Ixxvi, at the end; but in both 
cases the manuscript has (A f, \\ which bears the same relation to |zaj.A-» 
that D^XVi*^^ does to the root t^^^^ . How easily the error could arise, we 

• T %•. IV TT 

may see from a manuscript glossary in the India Office, which gives us 

tM-l^V 1A±-.^ ^r^H^, immediately followed by Cl?lil^H {sic) ]L.Ji^, 

to which a later hand has added on the margin jyuull u-J^ (A > 1>S. 
The Cambridge MS. of Bar-Bahlid's lexicon exhibits a further corruption, viz. 

§ This would be the ^o3 \^yL or Great Gate, at the S.E. corner of tlio city. 
J. S. fj 



50 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

church of S. Sermus. There came to him Bawi *, who was the 
astabidf, which is, being interpreted, the magister (militum) | 
of the Persians, and said to Areobindus, " If thou wishest to 
make peace, give us 10,000 pounds of gold, and make an 
agreement with us that we shall receive every year the 
customary sum of money." Areobindus promised to give as 
much as 7,000 pounds, but they would not accept it, and 
kept wrangling with him from morning until the ninth hour. 
And since they found no opportunity for their treachery, on 
account of the Greek soldiers who were guarding him, and 
because they were afraid to make war again with Edessa in 
consequence of what had happened to Na'man, they left Areo- 
bindus at Edessa, and went to light against Harran, whilst they 
sent all the Arabs to Serug. But the Rifite§ who was in 
(command of) Harran sallied forth secretly from the city, and 
fell upon them, and slew of them sixty men, and took alive the 
chief of the Huns. As this Avas a man of mark, and in great 
honour with the king of the Persians, he promised the Harran- 
ites that he would not make war upon them, if they would give 
him up alive ; and they were afraid to fight and gave up that 
Hun, sending along with him as a present to him fifteen 
hundred rams and other things. 

* Perhaps, however, w»0 j^ may be identical with the Persian name ij ^ , 

Buivaih, well known in later Muhammadan history. 

+ ,.-i_Jli^£D j is the Syriac corruption of the old Persian title spahpaty 
"master of the soldiery", of which the Greeks have made d<nr€^45r]s, and the 

Arabs JJUJU?!. See Noeldeke's Gesch. der Perser u. s. w., p. 444, with the 

passages referred to in the Index. 

X MdyiffTpos, magister, by itself commonly denotes the majordomo of the 
palace or chief officer of the royal household, iraXarlov fidyiffTpo^, called fj-ayiaTpos 
T(2v ^aaiXiKioi/ ocfxpiK'nov, who was really tuw ev TraKaTLi^ Tayndruv dpxfiyos. Here 
however the term, as explanatory of , i *^ 5^i> seems rather to denote the 
magister militum in the East, aTparrjyos ttjs ^w or aTpaTyjXdrrjs 'AvaroXrjs. 

% The MS. has [^^^6, the Rifites, but the context favours the singular 
\ i ^^5, the Rifite. This personage seems to be otherwise unknown. Probably 

he was an Arab by race, for ( » <=^ >^ seems to be= ^Jj ^1 , an adjective formed 
from i^j Jl, the loic-lying, cultivated lands along a river. 



SIKGE OF EDKSSA BY THE PERSIANS. 51 

LX. The Persian Arabs, who had been sent to SSrug, went 
as far as the Euphrates, laying waste and taking captive and 
plundering all that they could. Patriciolus*, one of the Greek 
officers, with his son Vitalianus, came at this time from the 
west to go down to the war; and he was confident and fearless, 
because he had not as yet been in the neighbourhood of the 
things that had })reviously happened. When he crossed the 
River f, he met one of the Persian officers and fought with him 
and destroyed all the Persians that were with him. Then he 
set his face to go to Edessa; but he heard from the fugitives 
that Kawad had surrounded the city, so he recrossed the river 
and stopped at Shemishat (Samosata). On the l7th of this 
month, which was Wednesday, we saw the words of Christ and 
His promises to Abgar (see ch. v) really fulfilled. For Kawad 
collected his whole force, and marched from the river Euphrates, 
and came and encamped against Edessa. His camp extended 
from the church of SS. Cosmas and Damianusj:, past all the 
gardens and the church of S. Sergius§ and the village of 
BSkin I!, as far as the church of the Confessors IT ; and its breadth 
was as far as the steep descent of Serrin **. This whole host 

* Patricius, the son of Aapar, a Goth. See Lebeau, op. cit., t. vii, p. 354, at 
the foot. + The Euphrates, IHiin. 

T T ~ 

ij: Probably situated outside of the gate of Beth-ShSmesh, L^t-d^ P"'^ 

»i« V) • , at the N,E. corner of the city. See Assemdni, Bibl. Orient., t. i, 
p. 405, no. Ixviii. 

§ This church probably lay some distance S.E. of that of SS. Cosmas and 
Damianus. 

II This village must have been S. or S.E. of the church of S. Sergius. I do 

not know the correct pronunciation of the name. Assem^ni gives _ju^ii 
Jiochen, Martin Bokein, both mere guesses. 

IT See Assemdni, Bibl. Orient., t. i, p. 395, no. xviii. It lay outside of the 

P»-* A-»-05 1-^'^) on the heights southwest of the town. This gate was on 
the south side, west of the Great Gate, close to the Karkha of Abg^r. 

** Assemani writes S'oren ^-»3», Martin Tsarem, but the name oi ^Ij^ 

m 

occurs elsewhere, and we have the analogy of _a.2)., .yS^a* Professor 

Hoffmann identifies this ^-»5 1 ^^ith Suriin, called in some maps Sermin, on the 
right bank of the Germish-chai river, as one goes from the Great Gate to Telia 
and Milridin. 



52 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

without number surrounded Edessa in one day, besides the 
pickets which it had left on the hills and rising grounds (to the 
west of the city). In fact the whole plain (to the E. and 
S.) was full of them. The gates of the city were all standing 
open, but the Persians were unable to enter it because of the 
blessing of Christ. On the contrary, fear fell upon them, and 
they remained at their posts, no one fighting with them, from 
morning till towards the ninth hour. Then some went forth 
from the city and fought with them ; and they slew many 
Persians, but of them there fell but one man. Women too 
were bearing water, and carrying it outside of the wall, that 
those who were fighting might drink ; and little boys were 
throwing stones with slings. So then a few people who had 
gone out of the city drove them away and repulsed them 
far from the wall, for they were not farther off from it than 
about a bowshot; and they went and encamped beside the 
village of Kubbe *. 

LXI. Next day Areobindus too went forth outside of the 
Great Gate ; and while he was standing opposite the Persian 
army, he sent word to Kawad, saying, "Now thou seest by 
experience that the city is not thine, nor of Anastasius, but 
it is the city of Christ, who blessed it, and has withstood 
thy hosts, so that they cannot become masters of it." Kawad 
sent word to him, saying, " Give me hostages (o/jirjpoL) that 
ye will not come out after me when I have struck my camp 
to depart; and send me those men whom ye took yesterday, 
and the gold which thou didst promise, and I will go far 
away from the city." Areobindus gave him the count Basil, 
and the men whom they had taken from him, who were 
fourteen in number, and made an agreement with him 
to give him 2000 pounds of gold at [the end] of twelve 
days. Kawad struck his camp, and went and pitched at 

* The village of Kubbe (perhaps identical with the |r2)cLD5 |;.-»5, Bibl. 
Orient., t. ii, p. 109, col. 2, i.e. C— >ljJi!l yJ, for |oCLD seems to be the 

plural of XD^^p^ 2Ss^\) probably lay southeastwards from Edessa towards 
Harran, in which direction KawAd retreated. 



SIEGE OF EDESSA BY THE PERSIANS. 5:^ 

Dahbclua *. He did not, however, wait till tLe appointed 
time {TTpoOecTfita), but sent the very next day one of his men, 
named Hormizd, and ordered him to fetch three hundred 
pounds of gold. Areobindus summoned to him the grandees 
of the city, that they might consider how this money could be 
collected. When they saw that Hormizd had come in haste, 
the}^ strengthened themselves in reliance on Christ, and took 
heart and said to Areobindus : '' We will not send the money 
to this false man, because, just as he has gone back from his 
word, and has not waited till the day came which thou didst 
appoint for him, so will he go back and deceive when he has 
got the money. We believe that, if he fights with us, he will 
be again put to shame, because Christ stands in front of our 
city." Then Areobindus too took courage and sent to Kawad, 
saying : " Now we know that thou art no king ; for he is not a 
king who says a word and goes back (from it) and deceives. 
And if he deceives, he is no king. Therefore, as falsehood is 
manifest in thee, send me back the count Basil, and do thy 
worst." 

LXII. Then Kawad became furious, and armed the 
elephants which were with him, and set out, he and all his host, 
and came again to fight with Edessa, on the 24th of the month 
of Ilul (September), a Wednesday. He surrounded the city on 
all sides, more than on the former occasion, all its gates being 
open. Areobindus ordered the Greek soldiers not to fight with 
him, that no falsehood might appear on his part ; but some few 
of the villagers who were in the city went out against him with 
slings, and smote many of his mail-clad warriors, whilst of 
themselves not one fell. His legions {\eyecove<;) were daring 
enough to try to enter the city ; but when they came near its 
gates, like an upraised mound of earth f, they were humbled 
and repressed and turned back. Because, however, of the 

* See Lebeau, op. cit., t. iii, p. 60; t. vii, p. 3G7. The Arabs call it 

^ ^ -^ i ^ "Si ^^ ■^ ^ 

^UUbJui or iUjLjbjuU It lies nearly S. of Edessa, beyond Harran, on the 

road to ar-Eakkah. 

t The comparison seems to be that of the compact mass of shieldbearing 
warriors in their charge to a moving mound of earth. 



54 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

swiftness of the charge * of their cavalry, the slingers became 
mixed up among them ; and though the Persians were shooting 
arrows, and the Huns were brandishing maces, and the Arabs 
were levelling spears at them, they were unable to harm a single 
one of them ; but like those Philistines who went up against 
Samson, who, though they were many and armed, were unable 
to slay him, whilst he, though destitute of weapons, slew a 
thousand of them with the jaw-bone of an ass, so also the 
Persians and Huns and Arabs, though they and their horses 
were falling by the stones which the slingers were throwing, 
were unable to slay even a single one of them. After they saw 
that they were able neither to enter the city nor to harm the 
unarmed men who were mixed up with them, they set fire to 
the church of S. Sergius and the church of the Confessors and 
to all the convents that had been left (standing), and to the 
church of (the village of) Negbath, which the people of the city 
had spared. 

LXIII. When the general (o-rparTyXaT?;?) Areobindus saw 
the zeal of the villagers, and that they were not put to shame, 
but that (the Divine) help went with them, he summoned 
all the villagers that were in Edessa next day to the (Great) 
Church, and gave them three hundred dinars as a present. 
Kawad departed from Edessa, and went and pitched on the 
river Euphrates; and thence he sent ambassadors to the 
emperor to inform him of his coming. The Arabs that were 
with him crossed the river westwards, and plundered and laid 
waste and took captive and burned everything in their way. 
Some few of the Persian cavalry went to Batnan (Batnae), and 
because its wall was broken down, they could not resist 
them, but admitted them without fighting and surrendered the 
town to them. 

LXIV. The year 815 (a.d. 503—4). When the Greek 
emperor learned what had happened, he sent his magisterf 
Celer^ with a large army. When Kawad heard this, he 

• Literally "the letting go." In a glossary I find |n*S • explained by 
^^L (Z.0 O I *n > , i.e., divorce. 

+ See the note on this word in ch. lix, at p. 50. 

X KeX^pios, KAep, or KAXwp. See Lebeau, op. cit., t. vii, p. 369. 



RETREAT OF KAWAD. THE GREEKS BESIEGE AMID. 55 

directed his marches along the river Euphrates that he might 
go and stay in that province of his which is called Beth 
Armaye *. When he came nigh Callinicus (ar-Rakkah), he 
sent thither a general {marzebdn) to fight with them. The dux 
Timostratus came out against him, and destroyed his whole 
army and took him alive. When Kawad arrived at the city, he 
drew up his whole force against it, threatening to rase it and 
to put all its inhabitants to the sword or carry them off as 
captives, if they did not give him up to him. The dux 
was afraid of the vast host of the Persians, and gave him up. 

LXV. When the magister Celerius arrived at Mabbog, 
which is on the river Euphrates "(■, and saw that Kawad had 
moved away his camp before him, and moreover that the 
winter season was come, and that he could not go after him, he 
called the Greek generals, and rebuked them because they had 
not hearkened one to another, and assigned them cities in which 
to winter till the time for campaigning came again. 

LXVI. On the 25th of the first Kanun (December) there 
came an edict from the emperor that the tax (crvvTeXeta) 
should be remitted to all Mesopotamia. The Persians who 
were in Amid, when they saw that the Greek army had gone 
far away from them, opened the gates of the city of Amid, and 
went forth and entered where they pleased, and sold to the 
merchants copper and iron and lead and old clothes and 
whatever was to be had in it, and established in it a public 
magazine {diroderov). When Patricius heard this, he set out 
from Melitene (Malatia), where he was wintering, and came and 
pitched against Amid. All the merchants whom he found 
carrying down thither grain and oil. and those too who were 
buying things from thence, he slew. He found also the 
Persians who were sent by Kawad to corlvey thither arms and 
grain and cattle, and destroyed them, and took all that was with 
them. When Kawad learned this, he sent against him a 

* "The land of the Arameans," the northern part of Babylonia, called by the 

Arabs Ai»xl\ t>^4*<j or the cultivated district of al-Kufah, in which lay Seleucia 
and Ktesiphon, KOche and Mahuza. See Noeldeke in the Zeitschrift d. D. M. G., 
Bd XXV, p. 113. 

t This is not strictly correct. See Noeldeke in the Zeitschrift d. D. M. G. 
Bd XXV, p. '^'A, note 2. 



56 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

general (marzebdn) to take vengeance on him. When they 
came near one another to fight, the Greeks, because of the fear 
inspired by their former defeat, counselled Patricius to flee, and 
he hearkened to this. In their haste, not knowing whither they 
w^ere going, they came upon the river KalJath * ; and because it 
was winter and there was a great flood in it, they were not able 
to cross it, but every one of them who hastened to cross was 
drowned in the river with his horse. When Patricius saw this, 
he exhorted the Greeks, saying : " O men of Greece, let us not 
put to shame our race and our profession, and flee from our 
enemies, but let us turn against them, and perhaps we may be 
a match for them. And if they be too strong for us, it is better 
to die by the edge of the sword with a good name for valour 
than to perish like cowards by drowning." Then the Greeks 
listened to his advice, being constrained by the river ; and they 
turned against the Persians wdth fury and destroyed them, and 
took their generals alive. Thereafter they again encamped 
agamst Amid, and Patricius sent and collected unto him 
artisans from other cities and many of the villagers, and bade 
them dig in the ground and make a mine beneath the wall, 
that it might be weakened and fall. 

LXVII. In the month of Adar (March), when the rest of the 
Greeks were assembling to go down with the magister, a certain 
sign was given them from God, that they might be encouraged 
and be confident of victory. We were informed of this in writing 
by the people of the church of Zeugma f. That it may not 
be thought that I say anything on my own authority, or that 
I have hearkened to and believed a false rumour, I quote 
the very words of the letter that came to us, which are as 
follows. 

* The name is pointed A^S in the Ecclesiastical History of John of 

Ephesus, ed. Cureton, p. 416, 14, and A\i in Knos, Chrestomathia, p. 79, 6. 

There can be no doubt that the Kallath is the Nu/*<^tos or Ni^/i^aios -rroTa/xos (the 

Batman-su), for liLo] (John of Ephesus, loc. cit.) is to 'A/c/3aj (Theophylact. 

Simocatta, Historiae, i. 12). Yet the distance seems very great; and, besides, one 
would rather have expected the Greeks to flee in a westerly or north westerly 
direction. 

+ 7ievy/j.a, on the Euphrates, near the modern Bir or Blrejik. 



A MARVELLOUS EGG. 57 

T.XVIII. " Hearken now to a marvel and a glorious sight, 
such as hath never been, because this concerns us and you and 
all the Greeks. For it is a wondrous thing, which it is hard for 
the understanding of men to believe. But we have seen it 
with our eyes, and touched it (with our hands), and read it 
with our lips. Ye ought therefore to believe it without any 
scruple. On the 19th of Adar (March), a Friday, which is the 
day that our Saviour was slain, a goose laid an egg in the 
villaoe of 'Agar * in the district of Zeus^ma, and thereon were 
written Greek letters, fair and legible, which formed as it 
were the body of the egg and w^ere raised to the sight and 
touch, like the letters which monks trace on the eucharistic 
cups "I", so that even the blind could feel their shape. They 
were thus. A cross was traced on the side of the esfof, and 
going completely round the egg, from it until it came to it 
again, was written The Greeks. And again there was traced 
another cross, and [going round the egg,] from it until it came 
to it again, was written Shall Conquer. The crosses were 
traced one above the other, and the words were written one 
above the other. There was none that saw this marvel, 
Christian or Jew, Avho restrained his mouth from uttering praise. 
But as for the letters which the right hand of God traced in 
the ovary (of the bird) J, we do not dare to imitate them, for 
they are very beautiful. Whosoever therefore hears it, let him 
believe it without hesitation." These are the words of the 
letter of the Zeugmatites §. As for the egg, those in whose 
village it was laid gave it to Areobindus. 

LXIX. The Greeks collected a large army, and went down 
and encamped beside the city of Ras-'ain. By Kawad too 

* So Assem^ni, Bibl. Orient., t. i, p. 278, col. 2. The word is no longer 
clearly legible, and might be 'Agdd. The vowels of course are doubtful. 

+ Literally, "the cup of the blessing", supposing ]An^ r)*^ > "jSjA^ to 
mean iroT-npiou rrji ev\oyias = iroTrjpLov ^ivcttlkov. Martin takes pp A » c^ as he 
writes the word, to represent tndapLov, meaning thereby, I suppose, irv^iov iepbv. 
This is quite compatible with the meaning of eiO^oyia (see Du Cange); but is 
inedpLov so used? It must be admitted that the word is not quite legible in the 
MS., and looks more like |53^j2 than anything else. 

X Literally, "womb." 

§ r-^^^W^l is formed from the Greek Zeu7;iaTeu5 or Zevy fiarlTTj^. Compare 
{ » (}rr> 0;-O, K\'ppr)aTr]% or Kvppiarr^^, from *CD5q_D, Ki'ppo?. 

J. S. /, 



58 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

about 10,000 men were sent to go against Patricius. They took 
up their quarters in Nisibis, that they might rest there, and 
they sent their cattle to pasture in the hills of Shigar. When 
the Magister heard this, he sent Timostratus, the dux of 
Callinicus, with GOOO cavalry, and he went and fell upon those 
who were tending the horses and destroyed them, and carried 
off the horses and sheep and much booty, and returned to the 
Greek army at Ras-'ain. Then they all set out in a body, 
and went and encamped against the city of Amid beside 
Patricius. 

A 

LXX. In the month of lyar (May) Calliopius the Aleppine 
became hyparch*. He came and settled at Edessa, and gave 
the Edessenes wheat to make bread for the soldiers (/SouKeX- 
Xarov) at their own expense. They baked at this time 850,000 
modii of wheat. Appion went to Alexandria, that he might 
make soldiers' bread there also and send a supply. 

LXXI. As soon as Patricius had got under the wall of 
Amid by means of the mine which he had dug, he propped it 
up with beams and set fire to them, whereby the outer face of 
the wall was loosened and fell down, but the inner part 
remained standing. He then thought of digging on by that 
mine and entering the city. When they had carried the 
excavation through, and the Greeks had begun to ascend, a 

A 

woman of Amid saw them and cried out suddenly for joy, "The 
Greeks are entering the city ! " The Persians heard her, and 
ran at the first who came up and stabbed him. After him there 
came up a Goth, whose name was Aid -|-, who had been made 
tribune J at Harran, and he stabbed three of those Persians. 
Not another one of the Greeks came up after him, because the 
Persians had perceived them. When Aid saw that no one was 
coming up, he became afraid and turned back ; but he thought 
that he would take down with him the dead body of the Greek 

* See p. 44, note %. 

t I am not at all sure that I have called the Gothic warrior by his right name. 
The Syriac letters give us only Aid, Eld or lid, which might be Aldo, Haldo 
(Forstemann, Altdcutsches Namenhuch, Bd i, col. 45); or Helido, Allido (ibid., 
col. 597); or Hildi, Hildo (ibid., col. 665). The well known name of Alatheus, 
Alotheus, or AUotJnis (ibid., col. 41), would probably have been spelled by our 
author with a soft t, viz, A_^. 

:;: TpilBoOyoi ^x^^^'^PX^^- See Du Cange. 



SIEGE OF AMID BV THE GREEKS. 59 

who had fiillen, that the Persians might not insult it. As he was 
dragging away the dead body and going down into the mouth of 
the mine, the Persians smote him too and wounded him ; and 
they directed thither the water from a large well that was near 
to it, and drowned four of the mail-clad Greeks who were about 
to come up. The rest fled and escaped thence. The Persians 
collected stones from within the city and blocked up the mine, 
and piled up a great quantity of earth over it, and all of them 
kept watch carefully round it, lest it should be excavated at 
some other spot. They dug ditches * within along the whole 
wall all round, and filled them with water, so that, if the Greeks 
should make another mine, the water might trickle into it, 
and it so become known. When Patricius heard this from a 
deserter who had come down to him, he gave up constructing 
mines. 

LXXII. One day, when the whole Greek army was still and 
quiet, lighting was stirred up on this wise. A boy was feeding 
the camels and asses ; and an ass, as it grazed, walked gradually 
close up to the wall. The boy was afraid to go in and fetch it ; 
and one of the Persians, when he saw it, descended by a rope 
from the wall, and was going to cut it in pieces and carry it up 
to be food for them, for there was no meat at all inside the city. 
But one of the Greek soldiers, a Galilaean by race, drew his 
sword, and took his shield in his left hand, and ran at the 
Persian to kill him. As he had come close up to the wall, those 
who were standing on the wall threw down a large stone and 
crushed the Galilaean ; and the Persian began to ascend to his 
place by the rope. When he had got halfway up the wall, one 
of the Greek officers drew nigh, with two shield-bearers walking 
before him, and shot an arrow from between them, and struck 
the Persian, and laid him beside the Galilaean. A shout went 
up from both sides, and because of this they became excited and 
rose up to fight. All the Greek troops surrounded the city in a 
dense mass, and there fell of them forty men, while one 
hundred and fifty were wounded. Of the Persians who were on 
the wall only nine were seen to be killed, and a few were 
wounded ; for it was difficult to fight with them, the more so 
as they were on the top of the wall, because they had made for 

* (poaaai. See p. 41, note *. 



60 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

themselves vsmall houses all along the wall, and they were 
standing within them and fighting, and could not be seen by 
those who were without. 

LXXIII. The Magister and the generals then thought that 
it was not fitting for them to fight with them, because victory 
did not depend for the Greeks upon the slaying of these, 
seeing that they had to carry on war against the whole 
of the Persians ; and if Kawad were to be defeated, these 
would have to surrender or to perish in their prison. There- 
fore they gave orders that no one should fight with them, 
lest by reason of those who were slain or wounded among 
the Greeks, a great part of the army should disperse out of 
fear. 

LXXIV. In the month of Khaziran (June), Constantine, 
who had gone over to the Persians (see ch. xlviii), after he saw 
that their cause did not prosper, fled from them, he and two 
women of rank from Amid, who had been given to him 
(as wives) by the Persian king. For fourteen days he travelled 
night and day through the uninhabited desert with a few 
followers ; and when he reached an inhabited spot, he made 
himself known to the Greek Arabs, and they took him and 
brought him to the fort * which is called Shura "f", and thence 
they sent him to Edessa. When the emperor heard of his 
arrival (there), he sent for him (to Constantinople) ; and when 
he had come up to him, he ordered one of the bishops to 
ordain him priest, and bade him go and dwell in the city of 
Nicaea, and not come into his presence nor meddle with affairs 
(of state). 

LXXV. As Kawad, when he took Amid, had gone into its 
public bath (Syfioatov) and experienced the benefit of bathing, 

* The Latin word castrum remained appended to many Syrian names in the 

form of |;-^rQ.O or |;_^^.0, (whence the Arabic -^ ), like caster, cester, 
Chester, in our own country. 

t When we last heard of this traitor, he was at Nisibis (ch. Iv). He probably 
fled thence, and crossed the desert in a southwesterly direction till he approached 
the Euphrates near SoOpa, or to ^ovpwu TroXtcrfxa, now Suriyeh, above ar-Eakkah. 
There seems to be no reason for believing him to have been shut up in Amid, 
as Lebeau thinks {op. cit., t. vii, p. 372), following AssemSni (Bibl. Orient., t. i, 
p. 279, col. 1). 



SIEGE OF AMID BY THE GREEKS. 61 

he gave orders, as soon as he went down to his own country, 
that baths (^aXavela) should be built in all the towns of the 
Persian territory. 'Adid* the Arab, who was under the rule of 
the Persians, surrendered with all his troops and became subject 
to the Greeks. Again, in the month of Tammuz (July), the 
Greeks fought with the Persians who were in Amid, and 
Gainas-f, the dux of Arabia;]:, smote many of them with arrows. 
When the day became hot, his armour got too warm for him, 
and he loosened the belt of his mail a little ; whereupon they 
shot from Amid arrows from the ballistae, and smote him, and 
he died. When the Magister saw that he suffered harm by 

A 

sitting before Amid, he took his army and went down to the 
Persian territory, leaving Patricius at Amid. Areobindus too 
took his army and entered Persian Armenia ; and they de- 
stroyed of the Armenians and Persians 10,000 men, and took 
captive 30,000 w^omen and children, and plundered and burned 
many villages. When they came back to return to Amid, they 
brought 120,000 sheep and oxen and horses. As they were 
passing by Nisibis, the Greeks lay in ambush, and the few 
whose charge it was drove them past the city. When a certain 
general (marzebdn) who was there saw that they were few in 
number, he armed his troops and sallied forth to take them from 
them. They pretended to flee, and the Persians took courage 
and pursued them. When they had gone a long way from their 
supports, the Greeks arose from the ambush and destroyed 
them, and not one of them escaped. They w^ere about 7000 
men. Mushlek (Mushegh) the Armenian, who was under the 
Persians, surrendered with his whole force and became subject 
to the Greeks. 

LXXVI. The year 816 (a.d. 504—5). The fugitives and 
those who had escaped the sword, that were left in Amid of its 
inhabitants, were in sore trouble and distress from famine. 
The Persians were afraid of them lest they should give up the 

* The name is uncertain, but the MS. has r^r^, not ,_»501, as Assemdni 
read, Bibl. Orient., t. i, p. 279. This cannot be the successor to Naman, of 
whose appointment by Ka\v3,d we were informed in ch. Iviii, but only the shaikh 
of some tribe. 

t «CDP-<t. Probably FaiVaj or Taim^, rather than Tevua7os, 

X Meaning the district around Damascus. 



62 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

city to the Greeks; and they bound all the men that were 
there, and threw them into the amphitheatre (Kwr/ytov), and 
there they perished of hunger and of endless bonds. But to 
the women they gave part of their food, because they used them 
to satisfy their lust, and because they had need of them to 
grind and bake for them. When, however, food became scarce, 
they neglected them, and left them without sustenance. For 
none of them received more than one handful of barley daily 
during this year ; whilst of meat, or wine, or any other article of 
food, they had absolutely none at all. And because they were 
very much afraid of the Greeks, they never stirred from their 
posts, but made for themselves small furnaces upon the wall, 
and brought up handmills, and ground that handful of barley 
where they were, and baked and ate it. They also brought up 
large kneading-troughs, and placed them between the battle- 
ments, and filled them with earth, and sowed in them vegetables, 
and whatever grew in them they ate. 

LXXVII. In narrating what the women of the place did, I 
may perhaps not be believed by those who come after us, (but) 
at the present day there is no one of those who care to learn 
things that has not heard all that was done, even though he be 
at a great distance from us. Many women then met and 
conspired together, and used to go forth by stealth into the 
streets of the city in the evening or morning ; and whomsoever 
they met, woman or child or man, for whom they were a match, 
they used to carry him by force into a house and kill and eat 
him, either boiled or roasted. When this was betrayed by the 
smell of the roasting, and the thing became known to the 
general (marzehdn) who was there (in command), he made an 
example of many of them and put them to death, and told the 
rest with threats that they should not do this again nor kill any 
one. He gave them leave however to eat those that were dead, 
and this they did openly, eating the flesh of dead men; and 
the rest of them were picking up shoes and old soles and other 
nasty things from the streets and courtyards, and eating them. 
To the Greek troops however nought was lacking, but every- 
thing was supplied to them in its season, and came down with 
great care by the order of the emperor. Indeed the things that 
were sold in their camps were more abundant than in the cities. 



REMISSION OF TAXES. INVASION OF PERSIA. Go 

"wlietlier meat or drink or shoes or clothing. All the cities were 
baking soldiers' bread (/SovKeWdrov) by their bakers, and 
sending it to them, especially the Edessenes ; for the citizens 
baked in their houses this year too, by order of Calliopius the 
hyparch, 630,000 modii, besides what the villagers baked 
throughout the whole district (xcopa), and the bakers, both 
strangers [Hvlol) and natives. 

LXXVIII. This year Mar Peter the bishop went up again 
to the emperor to ask him to remit the tax {cruvreXeta). The 
emperor answered him harshly, and rebuked him for having 
neglected the charge of the poor at a time like this and having 
come up to him (at Constantinople) ; for he said that God 
himself would have put it into his heart, if it had been right, 
without any one persuading him, to do a favour to the blessed 
city (of Edessa). Whilst the bishop was still there, however, 
the emperor sent the remission for all Mesopotamia by the 
hands of another, without his being aware of it. To the district 
of Mabbosf also he remitted one-third of the tax. 

LXXIX. The Greek generals who were encamped by Amid 
were going down on forays into the Persian territory, plundering 
and taking captive and destroying, and the Persians migrated 
before them, and crossed the Tigris. They found there the 
Persian cavalry, who were gathered together to come against 
the Greeks, and so they took heart against them, and halted on 
the farther bank of the Tigris. The Greeks crossed after them, 
and destroyed all the Persian cavalry, who were about 10,000 
men, and plundered the property of all the fugitives. They 
burned many villages, and killed every male that was in them 
from twelve years old and upwards, but the women and 
children they took prisoners. For the Magister had thus 
commanded all the generals, that if any one of the Greeks was 
found saving a male from twelve years old and upwards, he 
should be put to death in his stead ; and whatsoever village 
they entered, that they should not leave a single house standing 
in it. For this reason he set apart some stalwart men of the 
Greeks, and many villagers that accompanied them as they 
went down ; and after the roofs were burned and the fire was 
gone out, they used to pull down the walls too. They also cut 
down and destroyed the vines and olives and all the trees. 



64 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

The Greek Arabs too crossed the Tigris in front of them, 
and plundered and took captive and destroyed all that they 
found in the Persian territory. As I know thou studiest 
everything with great care, thy holiness must be well aware 
of this, that to the Arabs on both sides this war was a 
source of much profit, and they wrought their will upon both 
kingdoms. 

LXXX. When Kawad saw that the Greeks were ravaging 

the country, and that there was no one to oppose them, he 

wished to go and meet them. For this reason he sent an 

Astabid * to the Magister to speak of peace, having with him an 

army of about 20,000 men. He sent all the men of note whom 

he had led captive from Amid, and Peter, whom he had brought 

from Ashparin (see ch. Ivii), and Basil, whom he had taken from 

Edessa as a hostage (see ch. Ixi). He sent also the dead body 

of the dux Olympius (see ch. li), who had gone down to him on 

an embassy and died, sealed up in a coffin {yXcoao-oKo/juov), to 

show that he had not died by any other than a natural death, 

whereof his servants and those who came down with him 

were witnesses. The Magister received them, and sent them to 

Edessa, with the exception of the governor of Amid and the 

count Peter ; for he was very angry and provoked, and wanted 

to put them to death, saying that by their remissness the places 

which they guarded had been betrayed, and the Persians them- 

selves testified that the wall of Amid was impregnable. The 

Astabid was begging and imploring of him to give him the 

Persians who were shut up in Amid in place of those whom 

he had brought to him ; because, though they were holding out 

from fear, yet they were in great distress through hunger. But 

the Magister said, '' Do not mention the subject of these to me, 

because they are shut up in our city, and they are our slaves." 

The Astabid says to him, " Well then, allow me to send them 

food, for it is unseemly for thee that thy slaves should die 

of hunger ; for whenever thou pleasest, it is easy for thee to kill 

them." He says to him, "Send it." The Astabid says, "Do 

thou swear unto me, and all thy generals and officers that are 

with thee, that no one shall kill those whom I send." They all 

* See p. 50, note t. 



PROPOSALS FOR PEACE. 65 

took the oath, save the dux Nonnosiis *, who was not with them 
by preconcerted arrangement, for the Magister had left him 
behind on purpose, so that, if there should be any oath 
taken, he might not be bound by it. The Astabid therefore 
sent three hundred camels laden with sacks of bread, in the 
middle of which were placed arrows. Nonnosus fell upon them 
and took them from them, and slew those who were with them. 
When the Astabid complained of this, and asked the Magister 
to punish the man who had done it, the Magister said to him, 
" I cannot find out who has done this, because of the great size 
of the army that is with me ; but if thou knowest who it is, and 
hast strength to take vengeance on him, I will not hinder thee." 
The Astabid however was afraid to do this, and kept asking for 
peace. 

LXXXI. When many days had passed after his asking 
(for peace), great cold set in, with much snow and ice, and the 
Greeks left their camps, one by one. Each man carried off 
what booty he had got, and set out to convey it to his own 
place. Those who remained and did not go to their homes, 
went into Telia and Ras-'ain and Edessa, to shelter themselves 
from the cold. When the Astabid saw that the Greeks had 
become remiss and could not withstand the cold, he sent word to 
the Magister, saying, " Either make peace, and let the Persians 
go forth from Amid, or accept war." The Magister commanded 
the count Justin to reassemble the army, but he was unable. 
When he saw that the greater part of the Greeks were 
dispersed and had left him, he made peace and let the Persians 
come out from Amid on these terms, that, if the peace which 
they had concluded pleased the two soverains (Anastasius and 
Kawad), and they set their seal to what they had done, (it 
should stand) ; but if not, the war should go on between them. 
When the Greek emperor learned these things, he gave orders 
that a public magazine {airoOeTov) should be established in 
every city, but especially at Amid, with the view of putting an 

* The manuscript appears to have (ffi > 1QJ, and not, as Martin has given, 
|rn i 1Q_i. This latter is certainly not a common form of the name John, and 
our author elsewhere uses — J-z^d-i . I have followed Assemani in representing 
|fD I 1 QJ by NoVj/oaoj, but it might possibly be No/'i'ctoj or Nwj/ios, Nonius. 
J. S. i 



SoH-So^ 



6Q CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

end to hostility and drawing closer the bonds of peace. He 
also sent gifts and presents to Kawad by the hand of a man 
named Leon, and a service for his table, all the pieces of which 
were of gold. 

LXXXII. How much the Edessenes suffered, who con- 
veyed corn down to Amid, no man knows but those who were 
actually engaged in the work ; for the greater part of them died 
b}^ the way, themselves and their cattle. 

LXXXIII. The excellent John, bishop of Amid *, went to 
his rest before the Persians laid siege to it; and its clergy 
(KXrjpo^) went up to the holy and God-loving, the adorned with 
all divine beauties, the strenuous and illustrious Mar Flavian i", 
patriarch (irarpLapxVi) ^^ Antioch, to ask him to appoint a 
bishop for them. He treated them with great honour during 
the whole time that they stayed there. Afterwards, when 
the excellent Nonnus, priest and steward of the church of 
Amid, escaped from captivity, the clergy (kXtjpl/col) asked the 
patriarch and he made him their bishop J. When the ex- 
cellent Nonnus had been, ordained bishop, he sent his suffragan 
{^cdpeTrio-KO'iTo^) Thomas to Constantinople, to fetch the Ami- 
denes who were there and to ask a donation from the emperor. 
Those who were there conspired with him, and asked the 
emperor that Thomas himself might be their bishop. The 
emperor granted their prayer, and sent word to the patriarch 
not to constrain them. The emperor also gave them the 
governor whom they asked for. The emperor and the patriarch 
gave presents to the church of Amid, and a large sum of money 
to be distributed among the poor. For this reason there flocked 
thither all those who were wandering about in other places, and 
thev were carrying forth the corpses of the dead every day out 
of Amid, and were then receiving what was appointed for them. 

LXXXIV. Urbicius {OvppUio^), the emperor's minister, 
who had bestowed large gifts in the district of Jerusalem and in 
other places, went down thither also, and gave there a dinar a 
piece (to the inhabitants). He returned thence to Edessa, 
where he gave to every woman who chose to take it a 

* See Le Qnieii, Oriens Christ., t. ii, col. 992. 
t Flavian II. See Le Quien, Joe. cit., col. 729. 
+ See Le Quien, loc. cit., col. 992. 



WILD BEASTS TROUBLESOME. G7 

trimesion *, and to every child a dirluim (zuzd). Nearly all the 
women took it, botli those that were needy and those that were 
not. 

LXXXV. In this same year, after the fighting had ceased, 
the wild beasts became very ferocious against us. In con- 
sequence of the great number of dead bodies of those who had 
fallen in these battles, they had acquired a taste for eating 
human flesh ; and when the bodies of the slain rotted and 
disappeared, the wild beasts entered the villages and carried off 
children and devoured them. They also fell upon single men 
on the roads and killed them. At last they became so afraid 
that, at the time of threshing, not a man in the whole district 
would pass the night in his threshingfloor without a hut (to 
shelter him), for fear of the beasts of prey. But by the help 
of our Lord, who is always careful for us and delivers us from all 
trials by His mercy, some of them fell by the hands of the 
villagers, who stabbed them, and sent their dead carcases to 
Edessa ; and others were caught by huntsmen, who bound them 
and brought them (thither) alive, so that every one saw them 
and praised God, who has saidf, ''The fear of you and the 
dread of you I will put upon every beast of the earth." For 
although, because of our sins, war and famine and pestilence and 
captivity and noxious beasts and other chastisements, written 
and unwritten, were sent tipon us, yet by His grace we have 
been delivered from them all. 

LXXXV I. Me too, a feeble man, He hath strengthened 
because of His mercy, through thy prayers, that I should write 
to the best of my ability some of the things that have happened, 
as a reminder to those who endured them, and for the in- 
struction of those who shall come after us, that, if they please, 
they may be enabled to become wise through these few things 
which I have written. For the things that I have omitted are 
far more than those which I have recorded ; and indeed I said 
from the beginning that I was not able to recount them all ; 
because the sufferings which each individual alone endured, if 
they were written down, would form long narratives, for which 
a big book would not suffice. And thou must know from what 

* Tpifx,7)a-i.ou, TpL(xl(nov, tronissis, the third of an aureu'^' 
+ Genesis, ch. ix. 2. 



68 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

others have written, that those too who came to our aid under 
the name of deUverers, both when going down and when coming 
up, plundered us almost as much as enemies *. Many poor 
people they turned out of their beds and slept in them, whilst 
their owners lay on the ground in cold weather. Others they 
drove out of their own houses, and went in and dwelt in them. 
The cattle of some they carried off by force as if it were spoil of 
war; the clothes of others they stripped off their persons and 
took away. Some they beat violently for a mere trifle ; with 
others they quarrelled in the streets and reviled them for a 
small cause. They openly plundered every one's little stock 
of provisions, and the stores that some had laid up in the 
villages and cities. Many they fell upon in the highways. 
Because the houses and inns of the city (of Edessa) were not 
sufficient for them, they lodged with the artisans in their shops. 
Before the eyes of every one they illused the women in the 
streets and houses. From old women, widows and poor, they 
took oil, wood, salt, and other things, for their own expenses ; 
and they kept them from their own work to w^ait upon them. 
In short, they harassed every one, both great and small, and 
there was not a person left who did not suffer some harm from 
them. Even the nobles of the land, who were set to keep them 
in order and to give them their billets, stretched out their hands 
for bribes ; and as they took them ffom every one, they spared 
nobody, but after a few days sent other soldiers to those upon 
whom they had quartered them in the first instance. They 
were billeted even upon the priests and deacons, though these 
had a letter {aaxpa) from the emperor exempting them there- 
from. But why need I weary myself in setting forth many 
things, which even those who are greater than I are unable to 
recount ? 

LXXXVII. After he had recrossed the river Euphrates 
westwards, the Magister went to the emperor (at Constantinople) ; 
and Areobindus went to Antioch, Patricius to Melitene 
(Malatia), Pharazman to Apamcia (Famiyah), Theodore to 
Darmesuk (Damascus), and Calliopius to Mabbog (Menbij). 
So there was a little breathing-space at Edessa, and the few 

* The description of the Gothic mercenaries in this and the following chapters 
is not without its peculiar interest and value. 



GOVERNOR EULOGIUS. ARAB RAIDS. 69 

people that remained in it were glad. Eulogius the governor 
was busying himself in rebuilding the town ; and the emperor 
[gave him] two hundred pounds (of gold) for the expenses of the 
buildiug. He rebuilt and restored the [whole] outer wall that 
goes round the city. He also restored and repaired the two 
aqueducts (dycoyoi) that come in from the village of Tell- 
Zemji and from Maudad * ; and rebuilt and finished the public 
bath that fell down (see ch. xxx). He likewise repaired his own 
palace {TrpaiTwpLov), and built a great deal throughout the 
whole city. The emperor too gave the bishop twenty pounds 
(of gold) for the expenses of repairing the wall ; and the 
minister Urbicius gave him ten pounds to build a church to the 
blessed Mary. But the oil which had been supplied to the 
churches and convents from the public oilstore, amounting to 
6800 keste'\' (per annum), the governor took awa}^ from them, 
and ordered it to be used for burning in the porticoes of the 
city. The vergers {Trapafiovapcoi) besought him much regarding 
it, but he would not listen to them. That he might not be 
thought, however, to despise the churches built for God, he* 
gave of his own property to every church two hundred keste. 
Up to this year wheat had been sold at the rate of four modii 
for a dinar, and barley six modii, and wine two measures ; but 
after the new harvest wheat was sold at the rate of six modii 
for a dinar, and barley ten modii. 

LXXXVIIT. The Persian Arabs were never at peace 
or rest, but they crossed over into the Greek territory, without 
the Persians, and took captive (the people of) two villages. 
When the general (marzehdn) of the Persians, who was at 
Nisibis, learned this, he took their shaikhs and put them to 

* Both these villages evidently lay to the N. of Edessa. The Germish-Chai 
rises, two or three hours' journey from the city, near a place called Burac or Berik, 
a Httle south of which are the remains of the arches of an ancient aqueduct, 
which entered Edessa on the north side, somewhere near the Gate of Beth- 
Sheraesh. In the neighbourhood of Burac, therefore, Professor G. Hoffmann 
places Maudad (Modad) and Tell-ZSma; though for the latter another locality 
may, he thinks, be possibly found. In the valley of the R^s-al-ain Chai, near a 
place called Jurban, Julban, or Julman, the ruins of another ancient aqueduct 
have been seen, and in this neighbourhood, a little way south of Dagouly or 
Tagula, Pococke mentions a place named Zuwney, which may perhaps be 
identical with Tell-Z6ma. 

f Say quarts. 



70 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

death. The Greek Arabs too crossed over without orders into 
the Persian territory, and took captive (the people of) a hamlet. 
When the Magister heard this, for he had gone down at the end 
of this year to Apameia, he sent (orders) to Timostratus, the dux 
of Callinicus, and he seized five of their shaikhs, two of whom he 
slew with the sword and impaled the other three. Pharazman 
set out from Apameia after the Magister had gone down 
thither, and came and stayed at Edessa, and he -received 
authority from the emperor to become general in place of 
Hypatius. 

LXXXIX. The wall of Batnan-kastra * in Serug, which 
w^as all out of repair and breached, was rebuilt and renovated 
by the care of Eulogius, the governor of Edessa. The excellent 
priest Aedesius plated w^ith copper the doors of the men's aisle 
in the (Great) Church of Edessa. 

XC. The year 817 (a.d. 505—6). The generals of the 
Greek array informed the emperor that the troops suffered great 
harm from their not having any (fortified) town situated on the 
border. For whenever the Greeks went forth from Telia or 
Amid to go about on expeditions among the Arabs, they were 
in constant fear, whenever they halted, of the treachery of 
enemies ; and if it happened that they fell in with a larger force 
than their own, and thought of turning back, they had to endure 
great fatigue, because there was no town near them in which 
they could find shelter. For this reason the emperor gave 
orders that a wall should be built for the village of Dara, which 
is situated on the frontier. They selected workmen from all 
Syria (for this task), and they went down thither and were 
building it ; and the Persians were sallying forth from Nisibis 
and forcing them to stop. On this account Pharazman set 
out from Edessa, and went down and dwelt at Amid, whence 
he used to go forth to those who were building and to give 
them aid -f-. He also used to make great hunts after the wild 
beasts, especially the wild boars, which had become numerous 
there after the country was laid waste. He used to catch 
more than forty of these in one day; and as a proof of liis 
skill he even sent some of them to Edessa, both alive and 
dead. 

* See p. GO, note *. f See the note on the Syriac text. 



BISHOP SERGIUS. ROMANUS. THE GOTHS. 71 

XCI. The excellent Sergiiis*, bishop of Birta-kastra-I-, which 
is situated beside us on the river Euphrates, began likewise 
to build a wall to his town ; and the emperor gave him no small 
sum of money for his expenses. The Magister also gave orders 
that a wall should be built to Europus;}:, which is situated to 
the west of the River in the prefecture {iirap'x^ia) of Mabbog ; 
and the people of the place w^orked at it as best they could. 

XCII. After Pharazman went down to Amid, the dux 
Rom anus came in his place, and settled at Edessa with his 
troops, and bestow^ed large alms upon the poor. The emperor 
added in this year to all his former good deeds, and sent a 
remission of the tax to the Avhole of Mesopotamia, whereat 
all the landed proprietors rejoiced and praised the emperor. 

XCIII. But the common people were murmuring, and 
crying out and saying, "The Goths ought not to be billeted upon 
us, but upon the landed proprietors, because they have been 
benefited by this remission." The prefect (uTrap^o?) gave 
orders that their request should be granted. When this began 
to be done, all the grandees of the city assembled unto the dux 
Romanus and asked of him, saying, "Let your highness give 
orders what each of these Goths should receive by the month, 
lest, when they enter the houses of wealthy people, they plunder 
them as they have plundered the common people." He granted 
their request, and ordered that they should receive an es2mda § 
of oil per month, and two hundred pounds of wood, and a bed 
and bedding between each two of them. 

* See Le Quien, Oriens Christ., t. ii, col. 987. 

t The expression "situated beside us on the river Euphrates" seems to make 
it almost certain that this Blrta-kastr^ is identical with the modern Blr or 
Blrejik. Compare ch. Ixiii. o 

:;: EvpwTTo^ or 'ftpwTTos, *£D0 ^ 'j^<li U^Vr?"' °^ ^^ *^^ Arabic plural 

/u*-j1 j»-j Jerabls {JeraboUis is a blunder of Maundrell's). See Hoffmann, 

AuHziUje aus si/riacJien Akten i^erslscher Mnrtyrer in the Abhandlungen far d. 
Kunde d. Morfjenlandes, Bd vii, 3, p. IGl. 

§ Neither the exact form nor meaning of this word is quite certain, for 

besides "J^-^LCd") we find "j ^ c^m ] and {; g^m| in the native dictionaries (see 
Payne Smith's Thesaurus). In Hoffmann's Bar'AV, no. 1031, it is explained to 
mean "a leaden vessel in which one cools wine or water, also called |A-ti i \ ^ ; 



72 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

XCIV. When the Goths heard this order, they ran to 
attack the dux Romaims in the house of the family of Barsa* 
and to kill him. As they were ascending the stairs of his 
lodging, he heard the sound of their tumult and uproar, and 
perceived what they wanted to do. He quickly put on his 
armour, and took up his weapons, and drew his sword, and 
stood at the upper door of the house in which he lodged. He 
did not however kill any one of the Goths, but (merely) kept 
brandishing his sword and hindering the first that came up from 
forcing their way in upon him. Those who were below were in 
their anger compelling those who were above them to ascend 
and force their way in upon him. Thus a great many people 
occupied the stairs of the house, as thy holiness well knoweth. 
When therefore the first who had gone up were unable to 
get in, because of their fear of the sword, and those behind were 
pressing upon them, many men occupied the stairs ; and because 
of the weight they broke and fell upon them. A few of them 
were killed, but many had their limbs broken and were maimed, 
so that they could not be cured again. When Romanus had 
found an opportunity because of this accident, he fled upon the 
roof from one house to another and made his escape; but 
he said nothing more to them, and for this reason they remained 
where they were billeted, behaving exactly as they pleased, for 
there was none to check them or restrain or admonish them. 

XCV. Our bishop Mar Peter was very dangerously ill 
all this year. In the month of Nisan (April) the distress 
became again much greater in our city; for the Magister 
collected his whole army, and arose to go down to the Persian 
territory to make and renew with them a treaty of peace. 
When he entered Edessa, ambassadors from the Persians came 
to him and informed him that the Astabid who had come to 
meet him and conclude a peace with him was dead; and they 
beo-o-ed of him and said that, if he came down for peace, he 

a 'L>J^j or leaden vessel with a wide top." Martin gives from a Paris MS., 
j; Li "U^. m V)? Ir^^o], i.e., "two 0tdXat of olive oil." 



* There was a bishop of Edessa of this name. See Assemuni, Bill Orient., 
t. i, pp. 396 and 398. 



THE GOTHIC MERCENARIES. 73 

ought not to go beyond Edcssa until another Astabid should be 
sent by the Persian king. He granted their request and stayed 
at Edcssa for five months. And because the city was not 
sufficient for the Goths who were with him, they were quartered 
also in the villages, and likewise in all the convents, large and 
small, that were around the city. Not even those who lived in 
solitude were allowed to dwell in the quiet which they loved, 
because upon them too they were quartered in their convents. 

XCVI. Because they did not live at their own expense 
from the very first day they came, they became so gluttonous in 
their eating and drinking, that some of them, who had regaled 
themselves on the tops of the houses, went forth by night, quite 
stupefied with too much wine, and stepped out into empty 
space, and fell headlong down, and so departed this life by an 
evil end. Others, as they were sitting and drinking, sank into 
slumber, and fell from the housetops, and died on the spot. 
Others again suffered agonies on their beds from eating too 
much. Some poured boiling water into the ears of those who 
waited upon them for trifling faults. Others went into a 
garden to take vegetables, and when the gardener arose to 
prevent them from taking them, they slew him with an arrow, 
and his blood was not avenged. Others still, as their wicked- 
ness increased and there was no one to check them, since those 
on whom they were quartered behaved with great discretion and 
did everything exactly as they wished, because they gave them 
no opportunity for doing them harm, were overcome by their 
own rage and slew one another. That there were among them 
others who lived decently is not concealed from thy knowledge ; 
for it is impossible that in a large army like this there should 
not be some such persons found. The wickedness of the bad, 
however, went so far in evildoing that those too who were 
indisposed among the Edessenes dared to do something un- 
seemly ; for they wrote down on sheets of paper (%«pT7;9) 
complaints against the Magister, and fastened them up secretly 
in the customaiy places of the city (for public notices). When 
he heard this, he was not angered, as he well might have been, 
neither did he make any search after those who had done this, 
nor think of doing any harm to the city, because of his good 
nature ; but he used all the diligence possible to quit Edessa 
with haste and speed. 

J. s. k 



74 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

XCVIL The year 818 (a.d. 50G— 7) *. The Magister 

therefore took his whole army, and went down to the border. 

And there came to him a Persian ambassador to the town of 

Dara, bringing with him hostages, who had been sent by the 

Astabid; and they also asked him, saying that, if he wished to 

make peace, he too ought to send hostages (ofirjpoi) in place of 

those whom he had received, and afterwards both parties would 

draw nigh to one another in friendship, and they would meet 

one another with five hundred horsemen apiece unarmed, and 

then they would sit in council, and would do what was fitting. 

He agreed to do what they asked, and sent hostages, and went 

unarmed to meet the Astabid on the day appointed. But 

because he was afraid lest the Persians should commit some 

treachery against him, he drew up the whole Greek army 

opposite them under arms, and gave them a sign, and ordered 

them, if they saw that sign, to come to him quickly. When 

the Astabid too was come to meet him, and the Greeks and all 

the generals who were with them had seated themselves in 

council, one of the Greek soldiers gave good heed and perceived 

that all those who had come with the Astabid wore armour 

under their clothes. He made this known to the general 

Pharazman and the dux Timostratus, and they displayed that 

signal to the troops, whereupon they at once set up a shout and 

came to them, and took prisoners the Astabid and those who 

were with him among them. The troops that were in the 

Persian camp, when they learned that the Astabid and his 

companions were taken prisoners, fled for fear of them, and 

entered Nisibis. The Greeks wished to take the Astabid and 

to kill those who were with him ; but the Magister begged them 

not to give an occasion for war and to drive away (all hopes of) 

peace. With difficulty did they consent, bvit at last they 

hearkened to him, and let the Astabid and his companions 

depart from among them, without having done them any hurt ; 

for even when victorious, the Greek generals were gentle. 

When the Astabid went to his camp, and saw that the Persians 

had retired into Nisibis, he was afraid to remain alone, and 

went in also to join them. He tried to force them to go out 

of the city with him, but they were unwilling to go out for fear. 

* In the MS. there is a marginal note, no longer distinctly legible: "In this 
year died the holy Mar Shllil (Silas) of the village of B " 



CONCLUSION OF PEACE. 75 

In order that their fear might not become evident to the 
Greeks, the Astabid sent and fetched his daughter to Nisibis, 
and accordinc: to Persian custom took her to wife. When 
the Magister sent him a message to say, " No man will harm 
thee, even if thou comest forth alone ", he returned for answer, 
" It is not out of fear that I do not go forth, but in order that 
the days of the wedding- feast may be fulfilled." Although the 
Magister knew the whole thing quite well, he passed it over 
just as if he did not. 

XCVIII. And some days after, when the Astabid came out 
to him, he gave up, for love of peace, all the things which he 
had determined to require of the Persians, and made a covenant 
with them, and concluded peace. They drew up documents 
between them, and appointed a fixed time, during which they 
were not to make war with one another; and all the armies 
were glad and rejoiced in the peace that was made. 

XCIX. While they were still there on the frontier, Celerius 
the magister and Calliopius received a letter from the emperor 
Anastasius, which was full of care and compassion for the whole 
region of Mesopotamia ; and thus he wrote to them, that, if 
they thought that the tax (a-vvreXeta) ought to be remitted, 
they had full power to remit it without delay. They decided 
that the whole tax should be remitted to the district of Amid, 
and the half of it to that of Edessa, and they sent and made 
this known in Edessa. And after a little while they sent 
another letter with the news of the peace. 

C. On the 28th of the month of the latter Teshri (November 
A.D. 506), he took his whole army and came up from the 
border. When he arrived at Edessa, the Magister had a mind 
not to enter it, because of their murmuring against him (see ch. 
xcvi). But the blessed Bar-hadad, bishop of Telia*, begged 
him not to allow resentment to get the better of him, nor to 
leave behind the feeling of vexation or annoyance in any one's 
mind. He readily acceded to his request ; and all the Edesscncs 
too came forth with much alacrity to meet him, carrying wax 
tapers (Krjplcove^), both young and old. All the clergy {/cXypi/col) 
likewise, and the members of religious orders, and the monks, 
came out with them ; and they entered the city with great 
rejoicing. He sent on all his troops the very same day to con- 

* See p. 48, note *. 



76 CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 

tinue their march ; but he himself remained for three days, and 
gave the governor two hundred dinars to distribute in presents. 
And the people of the city, rejoicing in the peace that was made, 
and exulting in the immunity which they would henceforth enjoy 
from the distress in which they now were, and dancing for joy 
at the hope of the good things which they expected to arrive, 
and lauding God, who in His goodness and mercy had cast 
peace over the two kingdoms, escorted him as he set forth with 
songs of praise that befitted him and him who had sent him*. 

CI. If this emperor appears in a different aspect towards 
the end of his life, let no one he offended at his praises^ hut let 
him rememher the things that Solomon did at the close of his 
life"]'. These few things out of many I have written to the 
best of my ability unto thy charity, unwillingly and yet 
willingly. Unwillingly, on the one hand, in order that I might 
not weary the wise friend who knows these things better than 
I do. Willingly, on the other hand, for the sake of obeying 
thy command. Now therefore I beg of thee that thou too 
wouldest fulfil the promise contained in thy letter (see ch. i) to 
offer up prayer constantly on behalf of me a sinner. For now 
that I have learned thy wish, it shall be my greatest care, and 
whatever happens in the times that are coming and is worthy of 
record, I will write it down and send it to thee my father, if I 
remain alive. Let us therefore pray from this place, and thou 
my father from yonder, and all the children of men everywhere, 
that history may speak of the great change that is going to take 
place in the world ; and just as we have been unable to describe 
the wants of these evil times as they really were, because of the 
abundance of their afflictions, so also may we be unable to tell 
of those that are coming, because of the multitude of their 
blessings. And may our words be too feeble to speak of the 
happy life of our fellow-citizens, and of the calm and peace that 
shall reign throughout the world, and of tlie great plenty that 
there shall be, and of the superabundance of the harvest of the 
blessing of God, who hath said J, " The former troubles shall be 
forsjottcn and shall be hidden from before us." To Him be 
glory for ever and ever, Amen. 

* That befitted Ccler and his master the emperor. 

t This sentence is no doubt a later addition, probably from the pen of 
Diouysius of Tell-Mahre. X Isaiah, ch. Ixv. IG. 



INDEX. 

Abarne, the hot spring of, dries up, 24. 
Abgar, the promise of Christ to king, 5, 26, 51, 52. 
Addai, or Addaeus, the general, 8. 
*Adid the Arab, surrenders to the Greeks, 61. 
Aedesius the priest, 70. 
*Agtir, a village near Zeugma, 57. 
Agel, or Enjil, north of Diyar-bekr, 39. 
*Akk6, or Acre, destroyed by an earthquake, 37. 
Aid the Goth, 58. 

Alexander, governor of Edessa, appointed, 19; his reforms and 
buildings, 20; dismissed, 23. 

A. 

Amid, 1; besieged by the Persians, 38, 41; taken by them, 42; fate 
of its inhabitants, 43; besieged by Patricius and Hypatius, 
44, 45; the siege raised, 45; occupied by the Persians, 55; 
attacked again by Patricius, 55, and besieged by him, 56 — 61; 
sufferings of its inhabitants, 61, 62; negotiations with the 
Persians about its garrison, 64; the Persian garrison allowed 
to depart, 65 ; a bishop appointed, 66 ; headquarters of Plia- 
razman, 70; remission of tax to its district, 75. 

'Ammudin, on the border, 44. 

Anastasius, the emperor, 6; ascends the throne, 13; abolishes the 
chrysargyron, 22 ; suppresses the fights of wild beasts in the 
amphitheatre, 23; gives money for the poor at Edessa, 31; 
suppresses the festival of the 17th lyar (May) at Edessa, a.d. 
502, 35 ; sends Rufinus to Kawad, 38 ; remits taxes, 30, 55 
63,71,75. 

Anastasius, governor of Edessa, dismissed, 19. 

Antioch, 9, 10, 11, 34, 68. 

Antiphorus, the, or town-hall, at Edessa, 18. 

Apameia, 68, 70. 

Appion the hy parch, 44. 

Aqueducts at Edessa, 69. 



78 INDEX. 

Arabs, the nomade, 64, 70 ; the Greek Arabs, 39 ; attack al-Hirah, 
45 j invade the Persian territory and are punished, 70 ; the 
Persian Arabs rebel against Kawad, 15, but submit, 16; ad- 
vance to the Khabur, 45, and are defeated by Timostratus, ib. ; 
threaten SSrug, 50; march to the Euphrates, 51; invade the 
Greek territory and are punished, 69. 

Areobindus, the general, 44 ; defeats the Persians at Kisibis, ib. ; 
is defeated by Constantino, and retreats to Telia and Edessa, 
ib. ; garrisons Edessa, 46, 49, 52, 53 ; rewards the valour of the 
villagers, 54 ; is presented with the marvellous egg, 57 ; lays 
waste Persian Armenia, 61 ; winters at Antioch, 68. 

Armenia, ravaged by Kawad, 39 ; invaded by the Greeks, 61. 

Armenians, the, rebel against Kawad, 14; are reconquered by him, 
16; in the Persian army, 46. 

Arsamosata, its church destroyed by an earthquake, 25. 

Ashparin, or Siphris, 46, 64. 

Aurora borealis, a.d. 502, 37. 

Balash, king of Persia, 12; blinded and deposed, 13. 

Bar-hadad, bishop of Telia, 48, 75. 

Barsa, name of a family at Edessa, 72» 

Basil, the count, given as a hostage to the Persians, 52, 53; re- 
stored, 64. 

Basiliscus, deposes Zenon, 9. 

Bathhouse, fall of a, at Edessa, 21. 

Batnan, or Batnae, in Serug, taken by the Persian cavalry, 54 ; its 
wall repaired, 70. See Serug. 

Bawi, the Persian Astabid, 50. 

Bekin, a village near Edessa,. 51. 

Berytus, synagogue of the Jews in it destroyed by an earthquake, 37. 

Beth- Arm aye, a Persian province, 55. 

Birta, 71. 

Blemyes, the, 13. 

Boils, plague of, at Edessa, 17, 19. 

Caesarea of Cappadocia, 39. 

Callinicus, or ar-Rakkah, 45 ; attacked by the Persians, 55. 

Calliopius the Aleppine, 44 ; becomes hyparch, 58, 63 ; winters at 
Mabbog, 68 ; with Celer on the frontier, 75. 

Celer, or Celerius, the magister, sent to Mesopotamia, 54 ; arrives at 
Mabbog, 55 : sends Timostratus to Sliigiir, 5S ; discontinues the 
assaults on Amid, 60; goes to invade the Persian territory, 61 ; 
his cruel orders to the Greek generals, 63; threatens the governor 



INDEX. 79 

of Aniicl and the count Peter with death, 64 ; conference with 
the Astabid regarding the Persian garrison of Amid, ib. ; re- 
fuses to punish Nonnosus, 65 ; concludes a provisional treaty 
with the Persians, 65 ; returns to the emperor, 68 ; returns to 
Apameia, 70; chastises the Greek Arabs, ib.; fortifies Europus, 
71; goes down to the Persian frontier to make peace, 72; com- 
plaints against him by the Edessenes, 73; quits Edessa, ib.; 
interview with the Astabid, whom he takes prisoner, 74; con- 
cludes peace with the Persians and remits the taxes, 75; his 
return to and departure from Edessa, 75, 76. 

Christ, our Lord Jesus, His promise to Abgar regarding the city of 
Edessa, 5, 26, 51, 52. 

Chrysargyron, remission of the, by Anastasius, 22. 

Church of Arsamosata, destroyed by an earthquake, 25. 

Church of the Apostles, at Edessa, 33. 

Church of the Confessors, at Edessa, 51, 54, 

Church of SS. Cosmas and Damianus, at Edessa, 51. 

Church, the Great, at Edessa, 22, 32, 33, 70. 

Church of S. John the Baptist and S. Addai, at Edessa, 20. 

Church of Mar Kona, at Edessa, 33. 

Church of S. Mary the Virgin, to be built at Edessa, 69. 

Church of SS. Sergius and Simeon, at Edessa, 22, 50, 51, 54. 

Church of S. Thomas, at Edessa, 22, note ||. 

Comet seen at Edessa, a.d. 499, 27. 

Constantina. See Telia. 

Constantine the emperor, statue of, at Edessa, 19. 

Constantine, governor of Theodosiupolis, the traitor, 37; commands 
a Persian army, 44; deserts the Persians, 60; his treatment by 
the emperor, ib. 

Cyrus, bishop of Edessa, 19; dies, 23. 

Dahbana, 53. 

Daisan, the river, 18. 

Damascus, 68. 

Dara, 44 ; fortified by the Greeks, 70. 

DarmSsuk, 68. 

Demosthenes, appointed governor of Edessa, 23; goes on a visit to 
Constantinople, 30; returns to Edessa, 31; his care for the 
poor, 31, 32. 

Earthquakes, 23—26, 37. 

Edessa, impregnable, according to our Lord's promise, 5, 51, 52; 
refuses to admit Matronianus and his troops, 1 1 ; celebration of 



80 INDEX. 

the festival on the 17th of lyar (May), 18, 20; its suppression, 
35; fall of the summer bathhouse, 21 ; festival to celebrate the 
remission of the chrysargyron, 22; fall of part of the wall near 
the Great Gate, 26; great famine, 29 sqq. ; hospitals, 32; 
threatened by Naman and fortified, 41; threatened by the 
Persians, 46, 48—50; besieged, 51 ; the siege raised, 52; but re- 
newed, 53; raised again, 54; restored and fortified by Eulogius, 
69; conduct of the Edessenes towards Celer, 73, 75. 

Egg, a miraculous, 57. 

Emmaus. See Nicopolis. 

Eugenius, dux of Melitene, defeated by the Persians, 40; retakes 
Theodosiupolis of Armenia, 41. 

Eulogius, governor of Edessa, repairs the town, 69 ; rebuilds the 
walls of Batnan, 70. 

Europus (Jerabis), fortified, 71. 

Eusebius, deputy governor of Edessa, 30. 

Eutychianus, the husband of Aurelia, an Edessene, 19. 

Famine and pestilence at Edessa, 29 sqq. 

Famiyah. See Apameia. 

Festival celebrated on the 17th of lyar (May) at Edessa, 18, 20, 23; 
suppressed by Anastasius, a.d. 502, 35. 

Flavian, patriarch of Antioch, Q6. 

Fog at Edessa, a.d. 499, 26. 

Funerals, how conducted at Edessa during the plague, 33. 

Gainas, dux of Arabia, killed, 61. 

Gallab, or Jullab, the river, 49. 

Gate of the Arches, or Tombs, at Edessa, 18, 20. 

Gate, the Great, at Edessa, 26. 

Gate of the Theatre, at Edessa, 18. 

Germans, the, 13. 

Goths, the, as mercenaries in the Greek army, 6S, 71 ; mutiny at 
Edessa, 72 ; their outrageous conduct there, 73. 

Graves at Edessa, 33. 

Greeks, the Byzantine, 1 ; their treaty with the Persians, 7. 

Harran, attacked by the Persians, 50. 

Hirta, or al-Hirah, attacked by the Tha'labites, 45. 

Ilonorius and Arcadius, the Greek emperors, 8. 

Hormizd, one of Kawad's officers, 53. 

Hospitals at Edessa, 32. 

Huns, the, 7, 12, 15, 46 ; one of their chiefs captured by the Harra- 
nites and ransomed, 50. 



INDEX. 81 

Hypatius, a Greek general, besieges Amid, 44, 45 ; replaced by 
Pharazmfm, 70. 

Illus, governor of Antioch, 9 ; Zenon's attempt on his life at 
Constantinople, ib. ; retires to Antioch, 10; rebels with 
Leontius against Zenon, ib. ; they conclude a treaty with the 
Persians, 1 1 ; quit Antioch, ib. ; are defeated by John the 
Scythian, ib. ; flee to the fortress of Papurion, ib. ; are taken 
and put to death, 12. 

Isaurians, the, rebel against Anastasius, but are put down, 15. 

Jacob of Batnae, his letters to the cities of Mesopotamia, 43. 

Jerabis. See Europus. 

Jerusalem, 66. 

Jews, treachery of the, at Telia, 47 ; they are massacred, 48. 

John, bishop of Amid, ^^. 

John the Scythian, sent against Illus and Leontius, 1 1 ; defeats 
them, ib. \ besieges and takes Papurion, 11, 12. 

Jovinian, or Jovian, the Greek emperor, 7. 

Julian, the Greek emperor, death of, 7. 

Justin, the count, afterwards emperor, ^b. 

Kadishaye, the, rebel against Kawad, 14; besiege Nisibis, ib.\ sub- 
mit to Kawad, 16 ; join the Persian army, 46. 

Kallath, the river, b^. 

Kara Koyun, the. See Daisan. 

Kawad, king of Persia, is left as a hostage with the Huns by his 
father Peroz, 8 ; becomes king, 1 3 ; sends an embassy to Zenon, 
ib. ; favours the Zaradushtakan, or Mazdakites, ib. ; is hated by 
the Persian nobles, 14; who conspire against him, 15; flees to 
the Huns, ib. ; marries his sister's daughter, ib. ; returns to Persia 
with a Hunnish army and slays the nobles, 1 6 ; invades the Greek 
territory, ib. ; reconquers the Armenians, ib. ; invades Armenia, 
and takes Theodosiupolis, 37 ; besieges Amid, 38 sqq. ; takes the 
town, 42 ; intends to besiege Edessa, 46 ; nominates a successor 
to Na'man, 47 ; lays siege to Telia, 47 ; raises the siege, and 
marches against Edessa, 48 ; besieges Edessa, 51 ; retreats, 52 ; 
returns, 53 ; retreats again, 54 ; advances to the Euphrates, ib.\ 
retires to Beth-Armaye, 55 ; sends troops against Patricius, b^^ 
57 ; builds baths in the Persian towns, 60, 61 ; sends an embassy 
to the magister Oeler, 64. 

K6phar SSlem. See Negbath. 

K.6na, bishop of Edessa, 33. 

Kubbe, a village near Edessa, 52. 

J. S. I 



82 INDEX. 

Kushanaye, the, 7. See Huns. 

Leon, sent by Anastasius with presents to Kawad, 66. 

Leontius, the count, commander at Telia, 47, 48. 

Leontius, the general, sent by Zenon against Illus, 10; joins lUus 

and is proclaimed emperor at Antioch, ib. See Illus. 
Locusts, 23, 27. 

Mabbog, or Mabug, 21, 55, 63, 68, 71. 
Magi, the, or Persian priesthood, hate Balash, 12. 
Malatia or Malatyah. See Melitene. 

Matronianus, sent by Illus and Leontius to occupy Edessa, 11. 
Maudad, a village near Edessa, 69. 
Medes, the river of the, 49. 
Melitene, 55, 68. 
Menbij. See Mabbog. 
Metroninus. See Matronianus. 
Millet, sown by the starving people, 28. 
Miracle at Edessa (Constantine's statue), 19. 
Mock suns seen at Edessa, a.d. 499, 27. 

Mushlek (Mushegh) the Armenian, submits to the Greeks, 61. 
Na'man, king of al-Hirah, sent to attack Harran, 39, 40 ; threatens 
Edessa, 41 ; is wounded, 46; menaces the Edessenes, 47; dies, ih. 
Negbath, a village near Edessa, also called Kephar Selem, 49, 54. 
Nicaea, 60. 

Nicomedia, in Bithynia, its people afflicted by demons, 37. 
Nicopolis, or Emmaus, destroyed by an earthquake, 24. 
Nisibis, occupied by the Greeks, 6 ; surrendered to the Persians for 
120 years, 7 ; besieged by the Kadishaye, 14, 16 ; the Persians 
are driven into it by Areobindus, 44 ; Persian troops quartered 
there, 58; part of its garrison destroyed by a Greek ambush, 
61 ; sallies from it against Dara, 70 ; the Astabid and his 
troops driven into it by Celer, 74, 75. 
Nonnosus, the dux, 65. 
Nonnus, bishop of Amid, 66, 
Nonnus, the xenodochus at Edessa, 32. 
Olympius, dux of Telia, defeated by the Persians, 40 ; dies while on 

an embassy in Persia, 64. 
Opadna, 46. 
Orhai, 1. See Edessa. 
Ortaye, the, 28. 

Palm Sunday, its observance introduced by Peter, bishop of 
Edessa, 23. 



INDEX. 83 

Panipropius, 10. 

Papiirion, the fortress of, 9, 11, 12. 

Patriciolus defeats the Persians, 51 ; retreats to Samosata, ib. 

Patricius, a Greek general, 44 ; besieges Amid, ib. ; is defeated by 

the Persians, 46 j flees to Samosata, ib. ; attacks Amid, 55 ; 

flees, but rallies, and defeats the Persians, 56 ; besieges Amid, 

56 — 59, 61 ; winters at Melitene, 68. 
Perdz, king of Persia, 7 ; conquers the Huns, 8 ; is taken prisoner 

by them, ib. ; concludes a peace with them, ib. ; goes to war 

again and is defeated by them, ib. ; ransoms himself, ib. ; goes 

to war with them once more, is defeated and perishes, 8, 9. 
Persians, the, 1,5; their treaty with the Greeks, 7 ; hold Nisibis 

for 120 years, 7. 
Pestilence at Edessa, 31, and throughout Mesopotamia, 34. 
Peter, bishop of Edessa, 23; his reforms, ib. ; orders public prayers 

to be ofiered at Edessa, 27 ; goes to Constantinople, 29, 63 ; his 

illness, 72. 
Peter, the count, flees to Ashparin, 46 ; is taken prisoner by the 

Persians, ib. ; when in captivity saves Telia, 47 ; is released, 64. 

A 

Pharazman, a Greek general, lays an ambush against Amid, 45 ; 

winters at Apameia, 68; occupies Amid, 70; at Dara with 

Celer, 74. 
Philoxenus. See Xenaias. 

Prices of wheat, barley, etc., at Edessa, 17, 28, 29, 31, 34, 35, 69. 
Ptolemais. See 'Akko. 
Ras-'ain, 27, 57, 58, 65. 
Remission of taxes and imposts, 30, 55, 63, 71, 75. See Chrysargyron 

and Taxes. 
Rifite, the, a Greek ofiicer in command at Harran, 50 ; defeats the 

Persians, ib. 
Romanus, the dux, 71 ; is attacked by the Gothic mutineers, 72. 
Rufinus, a Greek oflicer, sent by Anastasius as ambassador to 

Kawad, 38 ; imprisoned by KawM, 39 ; released, 43. 
Rufinus, the prefect, 8. 
Samosata. See ShSmishat. 
Scirtus, d SKiprd?. See Daisan. 
Sergius, bishop of Birta, 71. 
Sergius, a priest and abbot, to whom this chronicle is dedicated 

by its author, 1. 
Serrin, a village near Edessa, 51. 
SCrug, attacked V)y the Persian Arabs, 50. See Batnrui. 



84 INDEX. 

ShSmishat, 46, 51. 

Shiggar, Shigar, or Sinjar, the mountains of, 43, 44, 58. 

Shila (Mar), or Silas, dies, 74. 

Shura, 60. 

Sidon, partially destroyed by an earthquake, 37. 

Siphris. See Ashparin. 

Stratonicus, priest and steward of the Great Church at Edessa, 

afterwards bishop of Harran, 32. 
Suph, or Sophene, 39. 
Suriyah. See Shura. 

Tamuraye, the, rebel against Kawad, 14; make their submission, 16. 
Taxes, remission of, 30, 55, 63, 71, 75. See Chrysargyron and 

Remission. 
Telia, 27, 40, 65, 70; besieged by the Persians, 47; the siege raised, 48. 
Tell-Beshmai, a village west of Maridin, 40. 
Tell-Zema, a village near Edessa, 69. 

Tewath-il, priest and steward of the Great Church at Edessa, 32. 
Tha'labites, the, attack al-Hirah, 45, 46. 
Theodore, a Greek general, 45 ; winters at Damascus, 68. 
Theodosiupolis of Armenia, taken by Kawad, 37 ; retaken by 

Eugenius, 41. 
Thomas, bishop of Amid, 66. 
Timostratus, the dux of Callinicus, defeats the Persian Arabs, 45 ; 

defeats the Persians, 55 ; carries off the cattle of the Persians 

from Shigar, 58 ; chastises the Greek Arabs, 70 ; is with Celer 

at Dara, 74. 
Trimerius the dancer, 18. 

Tyre, partially destroyed by an earthquake, 37. 
Urbicius, the minister, at Jerusalem, 66, and Edessa, 66, 69. 
Vitalianus, the son of Patriciolus, 51. 

Wheat, barley, etc., prices of, at Edessa, 17, 28, 29, 31, 34, 35, 69. 
Wild beasts, ravages of, 67, 70. 
Xenaias, bishop of Mabbog, 21. 
Zamashp, king of Persia, 15. 
Zaradushtakan, the, followers of Mazdak, 13. 
Zenon, the Greek emperor, 7 ; ransoms Peroz from the Huns, 8 ; 

deposed by Basiliscus, 9 ; restored, ih. ; tries to murder Illus, ih. ; 

sends Leontius to Antioch to coerce Illus, 10; sends John the 

Scythia^i to punish Illus and Leontius, 1 1 ; dies, 1 3. 
Zeugma, 56, 57. 

CAMBRIDGE: PRINTED BY C. J. CLAY & SON, AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 92 

5^5 .^^lo .lZ\i s»Z? 1/l^Ld oi^Zui] "ioCTiZ ]V)\sn 'looij ]^5 

]n i ►!* locnZ yi .'^oiAiL^j IZo] i ^ro ^ q-i-l]^ ■ V)\ 

oah loiZL) ]i^^5ao5 ]A\\v> ]ZVi-.^ 1Zq-k»Z; • V)o -.looi? 

... ^ > vn] ^>V)\\ y^NsN V»«-»^£Da* otZ^> 

1) This passage is also quoted by Assemani, loc. cit., p. 283. 
2) Read 1oC7l5? 3) MS. ^cnAil^?. 



91 RETURN OF CELER TO EDESSA. 

v£)]o .^\nb mrc) I c^\ AS\ci^'^ 0C7I0 .-•j]] IAj^jLD 

2^0 .a£L2U ^oaiiQi. l-»V-»?<2 ]lD_Lr: ^±^0 an^'^-j^n 

]^ > -'^ ^^^ p lAj._.yiD . 1 1 no .]Ai:iaiaLD w^\<^i? ^'P-*? 
]jAo1 ^ v?^^ U'^^ V\ I nV)? lA-iOi-^c-o ^i65o :]om 
: U]V)\ ^ 1 n'Amk)? IZyi g^ •? linmn t^^-»?o :C7i^ ^->. V> t .. o ? 
'cm i • ,..*-k)5'j w^oioV}k>v^o otZo n 1 5^> lenity ^5q1do 10 
ai5pii5 ,_kiVo c7l2^ ^?i? lAJ^-^-jAriD -.'jZariillLD ^oi-.Z)Z ^ 

.,^C71ClLk>5 ]^\n««^ ]j01 l^l^k) w_.V>-»Zl A-»]Jj.-kj15 OOTj] CI. 

^Ld? ,_jA-»"i 5C7llAj ]]] .«^c7iom^oo ^:^ vdmiAj w-mjI ]] 

yi) .^jAoini ^di^ '^m.£iLD w-i_ik) ^-.A^? .ISoj-tlkj tiOj-H^ 
^r^Soo .^.\oo^\^ IZoxlLdAjlLd ^I^ •. ^? ]j1 ti't^ 
Ual^) •. j^Z;-^]r:> iijocL* U^^ Aj] ^1? Ij] .m i ^V) 20 
i.^^ ^X l^ocn .^Za^^ ^ IcnXP ^^iZ A-.]jl-iJ^1 

1) O is more recent. 2) MS. a!^.LO, but the O is more recent. 
3) Read ]i » * 1 4) MS. ^Vk», but the point seems to be more 

recent. 5) MS. O^Atd] ,oV^V •- Assemani, Bibl. Orient, t. i, 
p. 282, gives .»»'AAcd"| ,nVn . \ m 6) This sentence is an addition 
by some later hand. 7) MS. *CQ:2llD. 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 90 

]qt\ -pn^vr) ]Ia^# ohNnn %n<^ po .]Lot ■ V)? "jZ^kJcL 
.["|o]ai JLDailb vi,j j]? ooi y^] -. >coo?-&m i ^i V) 
.CTiZal ^. '^t^H .0^1 ^ ^5 ]t^CL^ jAriD XCVIII. 
.•] » m;.ei\ '^-^1 ^itdAjj ot^, ^ooi ^Jjh^idj 1A1L'^ ^aili^ 
5 -,'-^v |jl-».jo ^oiV^s ^ I o] ]^n i no ."U-i^ AIo^j^jo ^\^ 
y^'r^'i -.^OT-o 'oV)K»Z H-ir-» 1-3-^10 .q^Ld jpaiAjL-k«o loA5o 

•locn? ]i i.a n 
^^i^LD •.]lDa-K.A^ oooi ^(TuA-.] ^L ^^l^jda po XCIX. 

A-I-05 ctiXd t^Z] ^5 ]Ln 1 V) Kj^loo ]Zog^ >^? .*QDa4cQj1 
^_i-Ly-^5 o<n ^Ij .^(tlL s^Ad ]±Daio •. ^ooi ^^ i ^V) "jZoj'ou 

j^Q-i ]]55 ^]jL4^a^ ^(tl\ A-i] ]otu .] A-fcjaco jd^LmL} ]J6> 
chZii) l-»r^1 A I n\ *r:LoA-»Z5 n*-^ * /^^l ^oio .^ociCLaLj 

15 'ai.5o1 05,-» tjOl wjOIO .OT-yj-l^ ViOij'ol L^^L^O ] > V^mm 

^r:55 •• w_ijj^1 ^^_»Z ^>j;-i|^ ] I 1 V)Zo ^ym \ ^a^c^o C. 

20.^^010X15 ^TLL^5 ^^4^ :aiX^Q-Lj P? >coo^^m I .i V) 1oon 
I5ZI ^Aj |]> . oim>^l ]]Zj ] ^ n m I ^1 j^cn^ "tuDO-^o 
0I ]Lm^ oi3A^ ^ ^on» 1 ]Jo .oxo 4^A^Z5 ]Avn..\ 

1) MS. ^Qj(. 2) O is more recent. 3) There is repeated in 

the MS., Ijl^^ol. ^oil. A-»1 "jooiJo .'UX43aco .o^A>7^ 
The O in (OOIJO is more recent. 4) is more recent. 



89 THE PERSIANS RETREAT TO NISIbIS. 

^k) *■• 1*1 oiNnl. :>acD ..^oikiLj ]j;^j1d ^oiNno ]_l1do(ji> 

^,,K>V)\ ..ju^i-^lJ oooi ^-A-^f ^-»? U^ocnj' ^ > «->. i\ 2q.Vj^o 

w-.oionn •o cnX qjlIdA^I ^j ^oio .o i '^■^tl ^mK>V)\o 
rO ..^cnA-L-i.^ ^Ld (jiV)\> ,_-»A-.]Jo :*£L2ikA , 1 n^^]] 

1Vk»o : (jiA->,' ■ V)\ «^±^ J.O ^5 j-urn-^l ."UlDocnil? V^jlD 
lo ni? ooi ^^\_-kj5 ./^^ I n^-iA \^£D-^ ^oxA 'q_Ai.j 15 

vOail. locn 1^0 .^CnZoX OOl «^1 ^O . >mn^n .k\^ 
0001 ^ 1 n^ ]J jOOlA\>^> ^Sdo .lAl »,V) ,_iD OTlni. .o<7^Vn\ 
5j^ •.] I V)OOT^ ^OiAX->o5 ^Vv^^ ^- ^- ^"^^^^ .dD-2liD^ 

^Nv^i? ^ ^-»1 PI -."IjI vCl2ij |] 1A1^-K.3 ^ tool ]]) tn-.Aa 



1) MS. Q_l)o], but the O seems to be later. 2) o is more 

recent. 3) For j-K»]ki!^ ; MS. Oj-^-kLqI^. 4) Read ^CLQ>j,JO? 

5) o is more recent. 6) MS. ^O-i ^jZ^ (sic). 7) MS. aX>j5. 

J.S. 12 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 88 

.^jjiiDj |]6 y^ ^r^? Q-KK_i_»1 .)-»ai)oio 00C7I ^^-i-K»tlb5 ^ > \ i] 
1Zv-i-i)o,>c:o . 'oV}»5 ]m I (^v"^n >coo^m i .1 V) ^5 ^-».^ Jjl^j 
V ..MLn^ p ^5 OCT .'oAn^ A->] 1 rnn ]Aj-i,lD5 lAi^^^ 
.;Sm IjCTii ^ OCT! ^ .oos ]Jo ."iocji 1^5 iin^! i^lnS^l] 

A-»]1 1 Nop "^. \o? 1o(ti l]a.^*jDD ] i sj^Wn* ]]] .cnZoV^imn 

oiZoii ]L]o .]iDQ-K.Al^ A-kUo ai\i kj oiNnN >coo^^m » ^V) 
10 1h^^ "^I cnkiL loan A-*] yO -lAj-iylD l5y2i 1-».idv^) ^rwj-*1 

''^Nnoio .]iiy. ^C7i-i>Z]^Q-K>.^^Q^jjbAj ,^„i^3Zioo .^^cldj 

^^k^lZlj |SDa-trD j^^i4^"i? (TLi5o]]o 5^^ Vh-^^"^ . ^cn m i <^ 

xQj] .Qg^o .^aii. ^ai-» ]Z1o .^ I 1 ijSp r^ ^oiZLD ^ 

^Ol ]±CQ;^'to ^ZuO :ail.5o]] , » O tj^Tp] s2)1 ^-»5 ]l] p 



1) O is more recent. 2) MS. niVmVnV 3) MS. Ws.i n?. 

4) The MS. has the marginal note : |.«-ij-0 LjId 1AJ-» 1>C7L0 

lA^;-0 . . . .O? (or |i\, ») lL-» w.^k). 5) MS. 1;..»3iDCn. 

G) MS. ^oNnruo. 7) MS. ^Z]?. 



87 OUTRAGEOUS CONDUCT OF THE GOTHS. 

'Q-C1oA-*1 .-0001 ^-t;V>\ IZa-ty-fc-KK-i-n? ^-»A^1 ]l2)l ."U^Ol 

\i.ci^] •. oZt? ]a_k)pO ]iDo > n 0001 ^ i \n] ^01^5 ,JiD q2i> 5 

]r^ > c^m "jjZ] ^ ODJJO ••lU.-^^-TD ];V?k> ^ ^55QjoA1d 
.:• Q-iJLi 1I.j^ ^i^ ] a >^ ]1q1iO • no .0^ kjAh)] ]oV>nvVr> 

^Sd 'a!^^Jo ]A.ija,£D o sn.^Zl ^Aio ^_-»-oAJi p ^..j ]s;^] 
^oiAcDvi. ^i> ^-»5 |j-;^1 •:• ^oiZuiio? ^ 'oAa-Loo 1-i-Vil lAib 10 
^_-i-K»Z55 1) V KK-> ^> ]j*H-»1 •'•• UI-»-HH^ lAlionSo ^ o > \nL] 
]j_K»)a£D ^^4^ .-^001^ ^1 •V)«V>? ^_-J^"|5 Ijjto oooi ^ I V)3 

A-Ao : ^cnA^-i.^ ]-»-ri5ASD yiD ^5 h'r^] •:• ^ZZ] ]] oiSdjo 15 
lAi.j-i-^ ^oijAi* oooi ^^'r-»7 T:-»-^"t^ ichli^ .loiZj u-^j] 
^OTJ-j-rD* j^j] ^,V)\no :^oiV)S 0001 ^j^jAId IZ] I ^1 m 
.^ ^(ji^ aj]nV)\ ]yL] ^ot^ oooi ,_j.^ai-l ^]] y^ : oooi ^^a^d 
^5 ^01^ 1oai A-.]? .^4^ ]>r'.*aAo ^oiALokj ^ ^o-fc^ji] 

^5 "IsDjA ., o •'joVnV 'Ai a s "Ij^oi ] • V n? ^oiA ■ 1 n .oir^ 



1) O is more recent. 2) MS. Vr^O. 3) O is more recent. 

4) The words ]jJD01 .^1 are repeated in the MS. 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 8G 

|miik?5 y»^] .-Oj-kjI 1|.i-yj_£D ]V)\ w»<fi 1Z55) ^j lAi^nro 

OOOI ^^.KkSLmlD U 'Oo\m^ ] i^pQ W i noi ,rD y^n > m .> 

.. oooi ^.n »L> ^cnli U'^l^ :U^;->-»? IAXjsjj ^\^1o V\vVn\ 
V\^io ^ri^ZZ"! l^iDQ-i ^o -.lANnm Oy-Kj] IIIh^io Iv-^i 

ji3 ,no 1 V)o5 .Qj-tdIZI y .iiioZo .]^ V .■ m oocno ^cn i V)>ai 

IZjj ^ JD;-L "i^^l ^ -.IjOI lA\Q„£lk) pi-O lAs] CJlZ^ ZoOl 

Ijoi ^o .^oi^ ^k)*i U -.^ySD ^i::oZo .^4^i)Z1o criZi^i.KJl 
> I V i n^ ^_.;_ojZ^ j^ :oocn ^fy*? 1^^1 ^oiX 'o • ^^ ]A2i:l 

10 1Z^ o] Ui? jls)*! ."loan Aj-^ ^aiX ^coiZj ^^j]© .. ^C7i.«-^u 

.^aiii. 1o(Ji 
Vi-«-0 'ijai5onn 'i;.^^ ^-^ ^\i> taancQ-k-al XCY. 
^-DCLi-j ^>j5|r:i ."jAjL* 1501 crul^D "looi ,-i(noA__»1 Imn-i^o 
^-*--. « ■ in .^AjUylD ^ Ij^^o] ^« \ A-»1^A_i ^oZ ..^5 

lo.-'UrD-;^) A i n,\ Za-»^J5 :>cloo .Uj-^j C7i\n\ >coo^^ai,^-k) 
oZ"i wiCji3o|l ^ po .]i > •? ]V)i n ^(TiV)S Zj-K>Jo i>aji_Qjj 
: C7LL3oy ]L]') 001 , 1 n(\>£o')p ^oiQ-L5o"|o '.] i cny^) Ir^v^l "^^^ 
.. ^^kJlo oill oooi ^ i m > g^Voo .A i V) ]V?'i.Q oikiL ^ i nj> 

]iDA .•e_iOl5o"i ^LD ;nM jjj .-Aj.kJ ]^ ' ^V> OOl ^1 OlX JD5i> 

20 ooio ■] i ro-^? IiALd ZoX ^ 35A.«-3 1jj.j^1 , > n(}LODl? 
]]) ^^4^<^ .] aSn^t "UjV-* ^^Aj w_,oi5o]riO Wno ^oiZoJxO 
Viifaniii ^ ., cnkiL "joon A^lj |_.ZcL^ IAj-.,^ Zooi ]o^co 
IAj-.^^ "--'r^? lA^jOJLio ]Lci'')oh ]Zvj5 ^^oiIiido .oooi "^r-* 



1) O is more recent. 2) MS. ^;-». 3) Read ^CJLlllOO 



85 MUTINY OF THE GOTHIC MERCENARIES. 

|]> ^-.j1d"|o ^a.1^0 0001 ^ i 1 '(^5 ]V>\? ^> ]i^Q-Q XCIII. 

^ y^] .tjj'aD .-.-^ ^ iJ] .1-»^Q^i ^:-»-^ \^;-«_35 jDji 
IootZj ,-a£) ^5 ji^j^ooi .|jon ] i o no • n o5ji.2] ^cn> 

]j.O)05 ^Oll^ 'O-a-LiZl . ^-LAcdZj IjOI Zu;-» j^O .^01^^]-» 

.oili __»^]o wtOiocn i^^lo ..^mco? ^cDQ-iiDo5 Za\ "J^jlj^^j 5 

^1? U^Lil .-^^V^ ]-K>Zv' ■ V) iJu]? ]^,n\ 0^.15 ]Sd ]V)\? 
.. ^orli. i-ciao ^ohd-Le) ^^^:ub ooio .oooi ^r"^ ^]±lan\ 
.]£Q_i_D ^v4-»-^ ^Z\k)o ."Uj;^^ ]-kkul1d5 1p2i£D*i ^nmi^ 

•> ^OTiV) ^jlZ ^ 1 n\ 'iZuQ_»Zo liCi-io 10 

*a^<Tl5 .]jai "(jj^DOS) ^nvVn^ j^ l-kZcL. ^010 XCIY. 
^O .w_.ai-»-3al^4^U5 l^Dj-O Z-».^5 1Z3^^ ^mrO? .mn iVnn; ^ 

^01005 ^^ ^^kij» ..(TLii-MlD Li.'^') IZ^^nmn ^_j_qXdd 

^^ ;>aO0 .*4kL» ^m^ > mn . ^01Qj|ib Wo »0 . m n\ CJLL_,1 15 

]]1 ^H^ V V^^r^ r»^ r^ '''^^^ ^5-» '^^^^^^ ^-*-^ ^^- 
^^ > oVnr^ ^ ] ><^''o\ ]oai lL:o -.locn »^j_iLd oi^ i m 

^oiASn-KKiii oooi ^r^i LKit\ ^5 ^ 1 \ i]o '.wjCtioXl \\sV?N> 

'*j.-»-^ .'vOOT-iZ^i* VVvv^ Va .nmV)\ ^cniV) ^s\? ^ >\i]] 



1) o is more recent 2) MS. ^\^. 3) MS. ]l !\n\. 

4) o is more recent 5) Originally ^01 1 <^ i roo (sic), but cor- 

rected. 6) Read "joOl ];-* CTUOJ 1Z5>5? 7) This entire 

passage has undergone correction. Originally the scribe wrote : (j | 
(sic) ] ' Vn o\ 0001 ^ > \^0 0001 ^ i ^^ t 1 V) {sic) ^ai-i_£l-»-£D 
^OI-uXl V\v^\> ^ nnVrn^. 8) Read v^OloNs? 9) Might 
we not venture to expunge this word ? Compare p, 86, 1. 4. 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STrLITE. 84 

% 
3^ ^cn5o]J ^ -C7iZqjZj-a_«_kkJ5 __»5 IAjOjoZZi .,-kj |1dq_i-o 

•. ]^^cno ]Z; t np ]^om i ^1 >cn.i.,.;Xo ^^5 ]5Aj^ XCL 
Y^Ojb ooi ^ ]i ni^ e_i;^ ..Z^ "J5aij ^ ^ali U^AJj 

10 , I Vn CTLO 0001 ^-.]J*0 . l^O-* CnZl ]jjoZl35 .mn. /\m , . Vn ^, ng^ 

. ^OTl\ I Kj k^_»] pZ] 

^oiog^\K> U1 r^V ^Ir^ A>aJ> ^? 5i^uO ^Ld XCII. 
]LJD'i]o .ai2i-i_KjO 001 ujOi5oto ^r::A_»o .«cnno? >coo 1 V)o3 
^01X0 ^ ^5 ]"^\V) ."iooi ,ns ]iomV)n 1Z|1^^ 

]n\V)\o |-.)Qji5 w.v^ ^01 \n a-»j-K»o ."iZoj'oTJ Aj-o "di\n\ 

.0001 ^ I m\oV> 



1) Here a leaf is thought to be wanting in the MS. by Assemani 
and Martin, to which supposed loss the following marginal annota- 
tion in the MS. itself refers : |.^LQJ ]]o "jA i % •Z ]nj.£a£) ]r)5oi 
_l0 *^\.Ki ]j| . poi jAt^j |m^o^\ It does not appear however 
that anything is really missing, for the quires are regularly numbered 
and have their full complement of leaves. All that is necessary is to 
place a full stop after ^OlZl. 2) MS. rn7ni7. ^ .. i> 3) MS. 

OlAnsUL^. 4) Read . » ■o yvVno? 5) MS. .O^^O, but the 

O is a later addition. 6) MS. "ij-.^4JQ^?- 7) MS. cn\n\. 



83 BATNAN AND DARA FORTIFIED. 

V\ » g^ 1^ .•w..o;.mn? 1^^m.o ^-J-4^5 ^5 15q-» LXXXIX. 
]1 » »->^ ^]jvr:)jiD ^j? 0-150^ -lymsn •o '|]V)iV)Z Za-» XC. 

^soiloX 0001 ^. 1 n • kjALdo loooi ^_fc-KKr:.AiiD ^ot-i1d 
Zooi U^J-^ U? --»crir^ 0001 ^;n i mV> 'i£:i5 jlkiL .^ai5Ar:A 15 
15q-» IxoAj? 1:1:^1^10 IjotZ^-^Ido .cfi^ ^o5ZA£QJ5 ]Za-.jlD ^ai2^ 
v^ 'Poibja ^a-i.^.Z1o .y-Q^ ]lDQ-K.Z^ l^AJ? lA..^ ]y^ 
_-»5 ]_t£Dv^ .oi2^ oooi _-»-j-C)0 ,_1dAX oA-kkJo -.j-ijoxo oi^:^ 
]j(j} ^o .^^oil^ 0001 ^■>-\r)nV)o TT-*-^^ ^ ^^^ ^» o^i 
"jooi *£L2iJo .jlolri ^c;A-» A^^jo .^01501 ^.Ld ^1;^ ^\n-» 20 



1) MS. ,m5i^0Cn> 2) MS. .m^»\ol. 3) See Asse- 

mani, Bihl Orient, t. i, p. 284. 4) The MS. has fj^-. Q>L5Q_» 

_j5 [j*,'^:)^. The words ; i . . Q>LjQ_» are on the margin, and the 
word ^) is marked to be deleted. 5) MS. Ol i nn \\np (sic). 

6) MS. apparently Q.r:i^Zlo. 7) MS. "Poja^oa (sic). 8) The 

words ^OT—ik 0001 are on the margin. 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 82 

.lA±_i,i^ cJlN^^n ItiiOID « > 1 no .(71^5 '^;_^0j^ ^ ^? 

1odi5 •.]-kk.«_1d5 XoLa^ ^ 'jZv-»r^o IZo^ctidd A i n\ ]o(t\ 
ooi ^TLJi^ cn\n • .y^rno '|'|V)'i'V?Zo ^ i ^^^ lAJi looi 
osn cj«-^rbo .1Ajl_.^^5 "ja4£b"to 5(jllj5 ,0^0 ^JokLMiCJi 

10 IjTiib Z\ > n ^"^\ (jiX_.5 ^_lD ^^(TLi ..4l-» 1^^U ^^ i V '^y 
X^L ^J^ ^1^)1 -.IAj-* 1>C7lX ^_»? |k)A .l^g^o ^Ali 
.]Z\\ I'n ^Zj'Z 1;V?»oO ."jAi I'lAmo .u^ocn ^-j-r^'jiio ^1;.i-.,^ 
'14-^ ^jlD lAi ^ I 1 n^il Ur^ lAWs ^5 5ArD ^ 

/. V^m:^ l-^:^iDo 1;J-ir^ 

l5.ot.ZL» o] o i\» y |.i.rD5a£35 ^5 ]'» > (^ LXXXVIII. 
^ZjZ ar^LMO .t-i-.coiiaa ^ a^^ "U-^ooi) A » n\ ;ns ]]! 

.^^..i-n^^JLCi I0CJI Zl.]? "UxDV^J IjLOI^ 1501 ^2l\j j^O .]-.}Q-D 

j^o .pK» |£d5q^.1 on •o ] I my^ A . *-^\ |j,jDa^ Uj jjin 
20 r-»-M ctlIi tool Aj^kJ ..>coo^m i tt V>^ 1?oi 1Zq-o. Ai^A^I 



1) So MS. See eh. xxix. 2) MS. ^^'^1. 3) Read 

l4li 1^J-.r^ ^'^ U^>1^ 4) Read ^^'.Sd lAi 1^1 



81 CONDUCT OF THE GOTHS. GOVERNOR EULOGIUS. 

Vkk^Ldo ]m'i' no V> ■ V) -."lA-AinmlDO ] ZliLdjIo ]Z\nrf) ]m2 ^o 
xO(TiLMln^L^o .oocji ^ i \n.» ^oiAog^i \ 'IAj-j^j] IZd^.o 
.^j^j-^Ii 'InrDo .0001 ^^.V^n^ ^oil. ^oij-kkXos) ^Ld 
w_»ai-i-4LD y? ^-mj"! t o nA.a'l ]Jo .]r)^^,l.o |rD3o-;\ oooi ^^^ 
^^ > V>i m? ^-»-^1 :13Z1 « I in ]i « >3> i^^o . ^oiA ■ i n ,_Sd 5 

^4» '^ ]r->^0 ■ \ ^OTj^-iI •. ^"j a->; m V)Xo OrDn'[])V)\ 0001 

^■>.nm Kj y *-•->]] ..0001 ^^ I \n^ - ■* ^ V^ ^iiO ,^0 .^ooi 
^Sd .^ oooi ^.i-n^V) ^oi-iJ\.L A-»|lDyr)5 ^-tXaii^ PI .oooi 
]-*.l.«~o ^ ^"jo .OOOI ^5, aV) 1j-h-»V lAi£>cL 3A£i 

]li!^LD5 l^niD ^Oll. loOl A^l ^Cl^ J.O .0001 ^^^ ]i ^<^>>Vnr, IQ 

: lo; %V)\ L'r£i l5aiJ '^ilLlj ^> 5A^ ^ LXXXYII. 

v^O >\oo :*OamLD5yll l3o>lZo :]-xV)^i3 ^l^^O -ji > /\\Vr>\ 15 

oii^ AV)mno ..vjOijo]^ W i No ]> i ^i ^"jooio .^.o^kA 

]001 .^^ ]jq1q^.01 ^.qZioIo .(TLO * a^) "Jju]] ^ZojQ^l 

lAo^iN ^'^^A ^^Ak) '^tlSD m/ o > 1 Av^\ 

."|Aj._»,kA yihy "i5a-» ^ri '' Lr^o ]±r^o .]j_i.jlo> 

1A^^ ]iDiZiZ ^ ^Am ^)Z lyip-ul rr^^h ^oZ Z,.>^o 20 

1) MS. lA-i-Ho]. 2) MS. ^^5 ;^5. 3) MS. -m. ^m Vnn 
4) MS. lool. 5) MS. Z5Q-11. 6) This word seems to be pretty 
certain, as the final letters p are plain. What precedes is illegible, 
but we may supply OlX *:Dai_.0. Had ]g^<^^ been correct, I 
should have added OlZ^jj ^Sd xC^CTUO. 7) Martin gives OULoZo, 
but Guidi believes the reading of the MS. to be OlZii_[^l^]. 

J. S. 11 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 80 

oAr^ ^5 ^i N.]^ ]\ ^\q.^o .•\^^] oNnro^ ^--i-li.c7i> 
^clkkHaj AjoA-ij ^-i-l^-rD ^j.Xai_o ^-^^ 0- r^o&i 

•^^<^ y 1id5 I^Zjdj .^jOOI ^uodi ]L^'ioh ]Ll.}L»L qjoLoL] 
.^^.M^^lis:^ \}'i^]y ^-»Aai ^ vi^Zj j^\ A^lo .^cnl^ locn 
po 0001 ^A>^ p '.oZ*! ^35QJiA liDov^? ]V)« n^ ^ch vs] 

10.^ 0001 ^\t) ]^n,.Xsn v^^l ..^Zl^ ^^^ :^-».nXQD 
.-^oio onV)?o ^oiAtdvjl ,-lD oA-Kj] ]inroV) ;^^. 1tL.^ 
1j-^]]o ."Ur^? fcoQ.^^ oooi ^-i-m y. V) iL5l ^ '^oi^vLdo 
"ij-;^!? I^jji^o .^oio o^j» ^o ^iTLiAib ^J^ on^^lo ^oyr-i 
^Ld Ij-^I? lA-i.rcir:Zo .oooi ^^i? Vi-^a.o? »^^"i ^cji^ju^n^ 

15 U^i-*-*-^^:^^ h'i-^] ^<^o .^jZin^o oocn ^■i..>^\ » V) ^oi..;^^ 
:>a:^o .^015 Ij-j] Uq^^ ^5^-6^ 0001 ^ ^^.^.^.^mJ^tjD ]Lm.jLo 
\^ vJ^T^ '^;XD-kkLdo oooi '^j.-.;-4idA!jO "joo « «-) -."ij-^l 
]o(Ji Aj]? ]j_cd1o :« • i\n) Ur^t^ lAl>on^o .1Z5q-L1 IAXl 
A.»-^o .0001 ^Vo Z^I-i-Z^-. lAj-Zy-^ono l-tifoon "IjjJ^j-kkI^ 

20 ^001 ^_£i2Lib ]]> ^_.5 ^4^^ -0001 ^ i \ ^ 1 1tl^ro ^ "jA-rojol 
^^^ v5^^Q-S-^>-^ b-^o1 I>aL -.lAj-ijiD? ^Zd^o "iZjij ^oiX 
."IZiioo l^ajt^ 0001 _-i-42^^i-!iD ]«.£o uji.il.D ^ i \\o .oooi 



1) MS. yLa\y 2) MS. ^.L-K». 3) MS. ^Qj]. 4) MS. 
^crL.aij';LD. 5) o is more recent. 6) MS. ^-^-a-KK-a-^jALo. 

7) MS. Udgl^^ (sic). 8) Read ^^.^;^nV) ? 9) Read ^^m>llDO? 



79 WILD BEASTS TROUBLESOME. 

.w^cn5o]] ^k)Z ^k? ]L]o .1^j-»> 1^^^? ^L ^(Tuo ^Zl^ L^ 
]i\C ^\d1^o ^ ' ^^: i s^i£dLj Ar^^? ]LLi] ^1^ ^ai-.o 

. ■ O i 1 CO 

liD^D ]I»5 5Ai:i ^k? :1Ajl^ 1?cn^ ^^? ai£D LXXXV. 5 
1,.2^^5 IL.CLCD A!^i.^5 ^jAoi .^r:) *-'HAf1 lAa i'n 1Za-i-K» 
lVi>.^ ^ly)\ ^-»ooi :>ai-^1 .^^ch loyon w»oc7i ^iu2U5 

^^0 .^l^^lo \^^ w-»0(Jl ,--2l4-kj0 "i-iJ'Q-Q ^Hj-^ 1ZcLi-Ki 

.^cn2i ^^-^m^o lA>o5olo lyKtaaLo V^^^ ^ ^ ^ooi 10 
dil^^rD u-a-j] ]oai AjA I??]? ]i nyp^ :oocn ^jA-k»5 ^5 ]j^cn 
• U-* 'i.ci.*->^? lAl-»o5 ^ :]Ju:^ |]5 C7i53]^ Za£^5 .-Ijor: 
j^o-Xl cjiZi. ^^4^ ^l^n^'i ooi iv^jio? ^? aiZaj3,sV>n 

p ^-k.j1 a-.AJ*jo OiSi£iO '. ^->OT 1 V) »^^:i^ IrJ-'t ^ .^(Ji5ol] 

]Zdj-KjO :|a.^^o "taZolDo ]i g^no lo^^j t^-»-^ ^?^1 ^ch4-»-» 
cjiZoni-*-^ PI .^ ^'ILd Pjo ^n'JAiD? 1 Au.j-;-K.l 1Zo5-;Ldo 1 A-«JLid 20 

rJu!D w-^CTiaLo^) ^H^ ^-»-»^ ^^V^ *"-^-^ ^"f^ LXXXYI. 



1) MS. o > e^n]n but the is more recent. 2) MS. Zaa->^5. 
.3) Tho MS. seems to hav(» ^A^Sd. 4) MS. ^"j and ^^JLk*. 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 78 

0001 iQ.\£DO .*U.£D5a£) oH_i-liuL ^r m 1> ^^ ^ 01^ "JOOI 

'>coaj--»o\<^ w_»;1d |-kk_.^o ]r ' ^-> .'l^ai^ "JV^o.* Wnn 

5 *4Xi)Z1 '^^Dji^^o .^L oocjij IALdcL ^oiXd li-n^lo ^1 
IjIdI? otXjj I^A? 1Aju£^5o ]* ' * r^ "Ijqj l5AjiD ] > n » ^Lo 
.]^nm i g^t ^Tl2i Ol.nSO -.t^j-^-SL^ .mnn >y\n ^QIQ, m > e)l 

llDoAl^ 5,-» .IZoJTii Za-a-i5 Wno yD ]jqj ]5A-i-k5 ooio 

10 a-ioA^1o .]n\V) ^ ^jlD lA^(jiQiD^|.«_350 r^L "jooi A^l? 
ISdoZ 0015 I^I^LqI^ om I ^]o -.^Z looi Zul? ^ > \ il aiV)S 
K>.»A^o .^oiZoAiD l^lji) Wnoo .l^onm i g^] ^aiJ!i loou 
jjjj ^oil. ^m^ |n\V) ^o .^1 1^j y? tj-.i-gu2i^ oiik 

15 IjotZi^Sdo /]inrnV)\ . ,. \^i? "i^a^^^ "tooijo ..r^l? 
^oii) ]j';-m1 ']Lq'jI]^^ ,^-^^-»1 ^oiliD ..^Ali 'o^xiZI 
•. jiD*) ,_k5 ^gj \n ]Z\'i V)5 1r^*-» oooi ^-i.n.2ilbo .oooi 

• vOOll^ .Qg^ASO? ^jlD oooi ^> No • ^p.010 

lAiD5i> och :]n\v>5 ]iV).oiio ^^5 jD-k-o5ol ^1 LXXXIV. 
20 'h'^] ]lo''iL\^o :>o\»5ol5 IijIo u-»ooi v^r-iliii^ oii^ "|ArD)o3 



1) MS. oiXu5. 2) MS. ,mi »\a^. 3) MS. no^ Vn 

4) Add j.^ ? 5) MS. Q-^l^ZI, but the O is later. 6) MS. 

IAtdoIQId. 7) MS. ]infnV)!l 4X2U5, but the upper point 

seems to be later. Read ^\c^Aj5 ? 8) o is more recent. 

9) MS. IZojAid?. 



77 PRELIMINARIES OF PEACE SIGNED. 

..^cnZoj'Zy ^cili1 ]Jo ^o«g^? ^ » \->lo .C7I5Z]] ^ojj ^l1o 
."Ujoo ^^^k) ^5ZA£DJ5 .^cn5o]Jo ]i i s «-m-.^o PAI^ 'qXl 
^nLoIl 'Qj-mV)K»]3o :]-l1doc7i> q-i-^jZIj ]\^ p ^5 j_*.^4^1 5 

..ctiZqJ^ -Id ]j-SDoai5> ^aiLiOXO ^oi^ joili^Z'i? ]\^ ,00 

^ ,_^LdA1kLdo ln\V) ^cn[-.)A\] ;^i^) ooi ^1? .wiOjZ 
^5 ]^V^ -k^j.^ [^01 A 1 in] ':>Qj^^ looTJ yio ..r^.^? J>OrSD 

CTU^J^J ^5 ^ y,^] .^]^ ^LJ\i^L.O .lAj.l*yLD ^(TL^liO 

ai2l 5yi U~i?o 'Iv-c^l ."U-*"*-^ w-»(Jia_.^^o IZo^^yVynN 15 
cn5oA^5 ]Lmln^L -j-jISdo .vpll aikL»5 ,-*j1 ^^.^ .jonX 

oocn ^^L,^^ r^-'l k^^lo] 'o^lZI ^5 Ilq::? LXXXII. 
ja^iomn 01^? ^ » \ .1 P1 ..v? ..^1 A-A -.ySoP l5ci.ciL 

. ^m. > v*-^n ^01 'oAj-k) I^^JO]^ j^k-y, ^{JUiCirD .0001 ^ i V)iib 20 

o.k-»jZZ1 fLol? ^l^nm»^1 ^-k»q-* ^j l5A-*JiD LXXXIII. 



1) O is more recent. 2) For ^\b. 3) MS. A^I^^IAjO. 

4) MS. repeats __i5. 5) For O^IZ]. 6) O is more recent. 

7) Assemani has I^Q-QTD-a.^] , both here and below (see Bibl. 
Orient. y t. i, p. 282), and does not mention that the name of the 
patriarch is written in the manuscript >oni > Knc^. 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 76 

1] I .1 CO ]j^oto Ul ♦. 0001 ^ I 1 mV)»^KLo ^aiAX>^j ,_iD ^Ij 

^OTO;_»5 .i!^] ^5 ^CD;_^IIl_i-.yj_lD .]l ^n ,_Sd 0001 ^Ol-iA-il 

^1 ■ i^Ki ,A^5 |AjL-..V^np ^^^Lo .w-iA 'iS^LL y ,_iAai) 

oi^ '<d] . ^Qj*| ^nV)\ »^!:^ ooi .o i a^ ^^^? f-^V w^AIdI 
,-k-O)0 jJ'^jiD ^oiXdo Aj"! ^jA » I V)i . , i n-fcxp] r^l .3,-» 

10 tool A-iAj «mno? ]m i iqj ,_Sd j-^ .^oiIid oiX a-i-kij'|o 
..>CD^^m i .1 V) 1oai oinn» j_i-m, "ijoiX^^ .]i..co^2)|o ^oik^ 
, I nj^l ^^DOi 5,-» .(JLO J-K.ZAJ |] ^jiD ^IASdoLd Viodi . ]> 
^oia^^o .ISoj^j "t^ijuIL* ^^ i 1 I \(^ ^^ > ^ V) .. "IlibAl^Z 
^1 %nmio -.Im i iqj ^oi i \s Uino ."ii'L. oooi ^.-i-Soj-cd 

y) i mi? >co;^m i .1 V) ^-Sd 1ooi ^"Uo iljoi ^ y^^^ip] looi 
o>.na V) ]]> ,ig^m > ^1 V) otL jipl /6i;\m? ,-lb odij ^ ^ >:^ 

.« iV)S Aj*!? lli-^5 OlZol-i-yj-ID ^"^.felD :;^\.QD IjOl O 1 V> Vij] jj] 

]Li ]J oulD o^nni^^nN U-»-»^ >«^ A-»1o -.oiV) 'Ai.,J ^j ^1 
20 >m » ^V) |i i • ^o .^5lk»> Ijoi ^ ^5 , 1 nfcxol .5^^ ]S\ 

• looi 
|^5q-0 ..«m I <^V)3 ^ ;ns 1] i '^ m IAIdcL ^1:0 LXXXI. 

1) MS. ^ > >^-> 2) For pjZZ. 3) MS. ^O^imJ?. 

4) MS. (AIdqId, but the points seem to be a later addition. 

5) MS. 01j-L£D?. 6) For Aj] Vi^l. 



75 THE PERSIANS SEEK FOR PEACE. 

00C7I ^j-o^? 5Ar:^ ^o .^A-kkJ p ^o<tl^ a^olLL]^ IVL^j-Co 
^oil^o lAliio llD-p s^] ..^1 \n»lLDo ^5 OOOl ^ I nmg^ 

jj_lr-l p ."U-IDV^ A-fc.^ O.K^L»]5 ^ ^^^-Kilo O^i^O 'Ol-CiOS 

]j5ZQ-i AXl '-l^v ^^^^'^? l-»--^4^? -h^J^^ ^ ^Zq-«-i,jo 

:l3Zy |_uk50C7l> (TlL ^ I Nni^KlDp 1]jKj p ^5 5CLD LXXX. 

^5 5yi .^^ I ^I:L ^ym s j^-.] ]1j-k» c7iV)\ loon A^l ^o 
^ isp-y^ 001 li^^^o -r^l rr^ 1^^ ln»? ]:^r-» ^^^^^^^^ 
."JV-^^oi^ v-»oi5o"| ,-lD looi Wo ••> 001 W^mn\o .^;..2i-»l 
IZoj-^o]^ 1ooi A->.kJ) .-^mDoj >CY) I g^SpqZL? *^oZ oi,\«\ ^ 15 
•l^juTi^ p ]inn£DaX-^i:i "jooi cjij^j* ..^^Z A-l^o oiZo^ 
^50irbo .A-i-Sd |jl-i^5 ooi IZqId ,-iD ;.o^ looi y? "JQ-^ljJ 
.*cD0j-4iii-k„^cJ^ ^1 A\o»o .oikiL A.KKJ5 ^^ > \ ilo _aio,£LL 
V^ -Ir^ .mLaoo ySol? U-»? ^ i~6^c .w->oi3o]] ^1 5j-io 
fju^ looi i!k)] .^] A I V)1? tool l^^o .AkiijZIo r-^i20 
^jjoiio Ijoi W:^o .0001 ^j-fej? lA-i^b? :>q1^A-»1 ^oiZoj-Sii-oj 
^5 j_i-^l4id1 .yiolj 15q-« wjOioA-."! ]i m n^Alo ^j ] i mjia^ 
^01 > ^\^ oi^ W>Ajj ..oi2i ^g^anALoo Oil V) 1ooi ]s,n 



1) is more recent. 2) The O is a subsequent addition. 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 74 

'']Lo^ i^ >nn •^^oxo^aZ'Io .A-j] % m n ]n\k) w->cn > i \o 

"ioCJI il£i] .CJI-qJ!:^ >o\iDO i^JOl j^-i]? U-^V^ ill ^mV) ^i:^? 

]m I ^ ]]? P65 001 ^ .cnnSo looi |k)5 "JctlIL 0015 ..r-»-Hi 

^ .« ■ I .»^ y ocn j-o '.Ij^-kjI .-»rZlo "iZo'JOTJ A-i«o 'di\n\ 
.] iN^aco? ASZ ^ Ij-o^ «on» -.] 1 ^*^V> A> n\ 
^ oooi ^r-»? ^01 ] > V)0cn3>? ^-.5 ]j;\OjSd LXXIX. 
lO^j-cuiO ^V^o |j.£Dv^5 H'l^ ]m V .in 0001 ^^L^ . ^Id"! 
l5oiJ j-^o .^cjijJiDjjD ,_Sd ]-k.CQ-;£3 a-iA^.o . ^ i n;.a.Kli:o 
'1Z]V>\ OOOI ^1 a 1'^AlD? :] i m'^^p 1^';^ ^Z ^>.K:i^1o .AXd5 
i*^v*^ "q-^sjo .^tli \s ^onnSZlo .'"i-uLDOoij'j ^oi-i-Ll 
] i rn-,L£)? l-»v^ ^ai\"^\o ."ULdooij ^oi5Ao ^^qi^o .AXdj 

15 ] 1 I 1 no .^V^^. ^i.f^Zk 1i-CD-L j^-,] OOOl ^0015 .^Q-Oj-K» 

^ ^\^o IZjI-^^-iD "U'Q-O r^olo .01^ IZoNm. ctt^od? 
.]j-^r^ ^Ti\n\ ^cDo^fem .1 > V) ocn . o^ ^-».w. )j^ai .am* 

;m ^-LD ]rOy sOi]n » V)? ] i V)Oai> ,JiD v-i^jI wkkDA • V)^ OOl ^]) 

20 Wnno .wjOio^Nkj ^\4^Aj ooi ..\\s\o ^ i V • 1v^^Q-lZ5Z 



1) MS. w.ai(iin-i-2U5. 2) MS. ViA^jdro. 3) MS. 1Za^^. 

4) MS. CTUlli-l. 5) The word (j-LD00155 has been cancelled in 

the MS., but I have preferred to retain it. 6) O is more recent. 



73 HORRORS OF THE FAMINE AT AMID. 

^^4^:0 ^(TllSd ]^]" jA^*^ rJA-»l ..T^^ 1oai A-.]? ooi 

] > 1 V 1 *-^ 7 ]LxlD l;(Y)n ^liliilo . A_.]-J^ wiooi ^do 1>cno 
IZjl'jJ 1Za£:3«o ] ' ^*^ ]mrnno ^oi-J^/Jj '"^joid ^c7l:);_»o 

sn .^Vn yi .^oili loon ; i ^ >^ P ^r^ I-l^OCTIJJ ^? 10 

"^-K^JLri* IAjlI'.V)^? ^Sd ;-*Zuo .]L]i y. m 'IZo-Su^-i-r::) locn 

ta-.t a^"i ."UcJi^ol Aj1j-»Aj .^an2i ^,-«-^o ."ILdoA^Ij .-i^^jrij 15 

.15Z1 . I Vno 
1;4£) u^^ -.IZll^ hoiTD ^oZ ^? .o\m LXXYIIL 20 



1) The space illegible in the MS, cannot contain more than two 
words, and Guidi thinks that he can discern the traces of jrUDD. 
2) MS. \2QSD ^(TiD'^j^O. 3) MS. locL». 4) MS. OIJ . . A^, 
a letter being erased. 5) MS. Uo^^-i-^. 6) MS. ^. 
7) MS. ^cnA-.^»V)n. 8) MS. cnl<mo. 

J. s. 10 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 72 

10 wj-ML^j ^^.^o .^Tili. looi Aj.^ cn\o ^ -.lAXonV)? ^jj.j^1 

00C7I ^ » ^ ^^ |] ^OlZv-fe"^ ^^ '.l-LlDOaiJ ^^ OOOI ^i \k>? 

pcnli .nm]o '.y^a^ ^ IjcliI "jjcuZ ^ctlX i'^s ]]] .,'V)^\ 



v^ 



widili CTi^ 0001 ^j-j-K>-^ ^oiA^DOj ^^o .|-»r-*b 1Za-K») 

1^^505 t'-;!. ^1 ^5 .ocd] .^-^Vd'Io ^-luj^lo I'^^^roj ]j^q-k» 

15 'q-l5io .l5rlD ^JIj] o\V)o ]A» ss Aj^id ,-1j1 :>Qipo ]• A? 

.OOOI ^ i \n] ^oHni "jooi llJj isOyLoo .]jcldv-» ^-ioH^ 

j^IIir) :,^Z5 lij ^OOl vr^? ^r^ 1jAV)\ LXXVII. 

^ >rnAi > ^ ]l5l ;4r50 U]' yt ^ ^^jJDOl « • 1 nZ] .^cA ^ 

o] l^^:*^ .]Li^JLo'i ^Xoh m\ A->]m ^V^ w-.ooi ^_CL£iio 



1) O is more recent. 2) For ]ji] ^^n .OlALo. 3) MS. "toO-aA. 



71 SIEGE OF AMID BY THE GREEKS. 

,-kjj.jI^ ^5 .^oZ .|-LiDoaT;\ j^illA^Io .cn\ i kj otZido ocn 
*CQDo> ^cD^j-^.o .jlD]rD> l^iDj'a^D Uii. Io-Ldoctj 'ac3;»Dl ..IoIdZ 

,_iD Or-»0 A\ >\o ai±_»;^> Xo\^ ]'^0 OTJ-il ^jCTIqXl ^v>oZ5 5 

•. jIdI ^ *rDA^5 Ijoi ^Sd 011^ looi ]i ^..oro^ ..^cD0;4^n_,^-SD 
ZqX cnnn • j:i->;.^g^\o .]^cov^ A > n\ A-kkJo oiNi kj ^idj 

.j-Doto 01^ 1ZVL.^£D VijODO ,,_j-£2:L ^AlilZ ] > \"(^0 iJi-J 

IILd '.'^'i ]i I %no Ij'oZo Ijjl jio] ZaX \0^|j? o"^^cn r-o 
llJl^? 0001 ^->,' n \V) lAj.n • \o .'ij]v?nn ]-».lDocn5 ^coA^ 

^50-115 ^Z "JOOI A^Ij y-K» ]miiiO Hj^ jTiO .CTLl ^-i-<^o'i^ 15 
Q-iQj^j ^CTIO .^OlJiiD Cn_»AJ> ,rL2U0 Ol\ i Kj ^i ..^1 

.^otJi 0001 ^jL^po an^-ciSZ] "U-tdjo^o ^ b o^i. yt^] ^oi.a-2U 
''aru^.j^o ]j]v>n ^ V»-^ooij qlLoo .. ^oiZaX ^ sCl^'^] po 

H^Ji »^-»1 OOOl ^-.001 .^TLllD ^^£)L] ]] c-aJ^O .^1 
.]-»-1D001v1^ ,nsA->]o CrL^-k-K» C7i1:.D0 OOl :>q\j»1 •.|-».jDD5Q^> 

^4^*^o ^5 l^^v^ -Iv^^QllZA^o tlLQiSDZ Aj»» lxxvi. 

lo^ O » n o |^5q_^ ..CTUJQIClL ^ Oj-kjA-*] r^loj :]:Oj-Kj 

1) O is more recent. 2) MS. a^L'j. 3) MS. ]5L.. 

4) MS. wOia^^o. 5) MS. oNso. G) O is more recent. 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 70 

y? qsi-mJ^L] ^j U-»-»-» -a^jo >CDo^^m ^. i V) LXXIII. 

, Vn\ ^ V^ ^01 -.t^lSD 5Q-DJ '001 Jo . ^OlX '^ i O 
5 ]J5 .^g^ "jjOl ^^^kJO . ^01-i-»a£:i>-».£: ^ i <^ lio o] ^m m as y 

.^joili^ZZ Uj--»-»? 'Olio] » .1 m ♦•] > V)ooi?' ^-Sd ^^ I kkIdALo 
looi ^il? 001 ] 1 i {) 1 fi^rgQJD ^5 ^V-»-» ^>^^-.k^ LXXIV. 

10 ] > m;^> ]^\iD ^5 ij-k)*! ^Sd lAl^^j ^^ I ii 1 ^ZjZo OOl 

^^^ l ^^bij-1^ Ip •. ym stjoih] "|ZiliQ-.o .01X^.001 ^^oi^Z] 

Zoll MJib j^O .OlV)\? U->-^? i>CLL vJij] OTO Aa.2l5 Ij^OylOO 

wj01q-»Aj"|o wioio^jojo .-"Ui^ooij? Ij.1.4^ ai.*-2U vxjaji .]i i^ 
j^o .w^oi5o]J ^oio5yi ^Z ^0 .15q^ 1;^Ak)> If-^HLQ^^ 

]r^] w»oiqXl I>Q-i-rxu> .]g^nrin 1 ^^l ^ j-kkX yTLS .oiZoX 

y ^OlOlDjiDO lAi^ylD '] I Om kOAj ^i]jO .1Zq-a.j.-«_D5 

.*oj-bAj ^^Lom\ U^1o .IpkjAj 
^1 ^ -.r^U ^ **^^ r^? ^^^4^ ^? ?^^-^ LXXY. 
20 .^^ -."jZo-KKinlD _1d5 |j55Q^l:i « i m io .ou^j ^^ i mV? i,\ 

11CL*wkSD ^^V^*^ .m 1 ^ o ^i VnAj^ ..OIjZ]] A-kkJ5 (T1j-kk1d "JOOI 



1) For^ji). 2) MS. OiZo I ^m. 3) Readlcnl^IIDZZ? 

4) This seems to be the reading of the MS., and not |lO 1 n . 
Assemani too says "Nicaeae consistere jussus est" (Bibl. Orient.^ 
t. i.,p. 279, col. 2). 



69 SIEGE OF AMID BY THE GREEKS. 

.l5a^ La^ cnii ^i.o ^5 rO ]i<CL^ ^Xoio ."iv^^^o 'U^i^ 
.. ^cnaj-nnL2L35 1ocji \^\o ."jja^ ^ ]ici-K>,^ A-k>j 

C7l;^:£D0 ^rng^> > m ^kL* ."UA-iA^ OlloaiQ-^ w-iCJIoA-*"!? 

So VVvV >vo> n > ,_j.licn Oj.^ :l5aji Za!:^ oil. ]ocji MJibj 

•1 . -v^— 

w-»oi-iu>s>.Ldo ^(JiAjl-*.^ ^ Ij'L 1j-»o -.Iv^i^ . > \ » n^ ^j'Z 

n*->.o<n\ QloOO Q-l-»lZZ"i IjOl ^^^O .ZoOl lii^ ^C71-»)Z 

I^^^Z 15C1^ ^5 ] > rny^ ^o .' C1.x-k»1dZ1 ^ i > V^ k>0 1]ibo 
.r^^^^^ ;]_> >^^^ 0001 U^^?0 .Aj-SD? Q_.V*^Z"i jO-KK^rii 

^Cn^A^I l5a-»5 |kDO^ID> ]iQr) :^C7lklL on;oV^\ ;-i-^1ooi 
.l5a^ oiXo ^ ^oil CL±^ 1)Q-L1 lAri ^1? ^i^^ .ooc7i20 

y ;.£^1^5 ^-^^OlluO ^-i.:lijn<D0 0001 ^ I ^O I O ^OlO-y^O 

.0001 ^i.>oALd 



1) MS. 1^n\' .. 2) MS. ^OloA.*-!. 3) MS. oil ^ >C0. 

4) MS. ]-i^LDai35. 5) MS. originally _-»5y-K», but corrected. 

6) MS. a-..>.KL£)Zl5. 7) MS. ]»:jq1jd. 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 68 

^ 0^0150 ] ^ m Vo c^ 'cno\V)»o .'|A±-»,V)\ ^-•-^•i' j-klDoaijI 
aiki3 5 "1-»-1q-ii »n^n) ai5Aoo . u_»c7ia.«^i 50 .n\mp ] > V)yiD 
] iCQ-;^ ^ "iZO^Al.0 .,^-KK^ Ijo^ij^^ locn puTii^o .^IL 
5 ^^Ld .oi5A£d sn\ro U ]_*.k:oai3 ^ "lJr-»-»]o -^-^-hi? ^cn 
- ^ >] AjAj j.!^ ]^j j.r:o .l-i-CD-;^ ^oiX oocn ^o ■ ..5]^ 

,^010; n coo IAJ-.^^ O^ ^ l^"ii .-«-JL2) l-i-rojoso .^Z ^ 

oocn ^r43o .'ilji-^j.rD l5,lD o.^ ctliId ^\\o .I^-^lkA 

15 lA-»;_»^*i lAc05 ^ t^?? .. .-*ai05y-K» ^ooiXd A-i"|^-.cn)i 

1]Xk» 1 i V)00lj> ^r^lLj 001 ^5 j^j] .\llD ^ V 1] o\V)0 5,-^. 

•U^^ ,^ t-jL^DOil voiZoX A-KKJ5 ]iV)\« V) ,_1d Ijot. 
20 |j^0)5 \L.^ <Ti\o ]i.^ p ^5 ^ I V)cLi ^ yj^K^D LXXIL 
locn |i' r^ l-»-^ .]j-2C7i ]D;,n\ loor l^i^JQ-^ .^oxoo 



1) MS. •.-.(TIQ-LLq^O. 2) MS. n^Vrn and O ■ ..3]^, but O is 

more recent in both. 3) MS. w-»01Q-kk1d. 4) The MS. seems 

to have OT-1. 5) O is more recent. 6) Read ( ^ ^ \ ? 

7) O is more recent. 



G7 SIEGE OF AMID BY THE GEEEKS. 

0;.3 oZlkkJO l^j-w^L-TD U-»->-» 'O a 1 ^Z] ^5 |-uLD0C7I> LXIX. 
|;<^ ^ ^^-i] OJjA^I ^-»5 JQ-D ^ ^"i ."iAj-.r^ ]-l->-L-a„>5 Lq.\ 

0001 ^1 \h ^^\^] ^ ^^lSU 'oJll'io .,-*-» V^ ^-iL^^ lAi 
]L\^0 *lj-i.0 ^-D> ^Z ^iD j^50 .^1 ^^j.a^0 |-«-o-^ ^OlX 

"jZ^o .tj.^oai 1 i n\>j vE)0 i \n "iooi i^] o^;»»]ri LXX. 
^V^rjoTD ^,n\jp jjoijo]] |4"»-» «^^-»o .-icjijo]^ »^A-i 
IlknloZ IZojlD Vfe-*^ b^ ].3 nyrp a^lo .'^oiAiisLL^ 15 
^5 •. ]_»5,j_iii^]J ^i"! ^5 v?-»-^l .^1 ^IL ^ > • V) kjO 

"jooi ^^i-K»5 ocTi ]1^K>.^ ^-ju.^ r^ T:r^? »£1j}-4^ LXXI. 
.]5qj ^oio \ >V)5]o tm'i on oinV)rr) .jiolj ]3q_» A-»-^Z 
vo\'.n lA-icL/.o A\g^io l5a-»5 lA_.vi wiOid^] « i ^SZlo 20 

•lAj-jylD Q-i>-^ ^CLUO 30^kkJ ]1\>.kID OliDj .-iJ^jZIo .v-i0(JI 
.Qj"! Zl-»o • .omVr>\ I^SdOOIJ a-.^-»0 ];„21j^ OI a \^ ,^0 

^*^ • • • • 



1) O is more recent. Eead ^ ^ ^ ^ 1 2) O is more recent. 

3) O is more recent. 4) MS. A-»] ■ 1 ^. 5) MS. ^OlAn^LLO. 
6) MS. w^^5lo. 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 66 

y? :].K>jDa-.5 ^^]Zo,.>uO 1Z5ak)?Z ^iu»JDcn m1£l. LXVIIL 
^(yi\o'iO ^^\ >^n ^_,c7i ^-»? hcnj ^^4^ .^(TiZq^I Zooi 

.^;.j>*Z> ^oiili jDji !>0jlD5 1L«-D ]]> -^^^ ^o g^ m no 
."iia..oi> l5a:^5 1A-.jjd '^-h^-^^ lA:^^^ ]L\6 1^ .^o;^? 






10^ai-.A3lo .^^^iDO ^-i_£L»5 IAji.jglj ]L^Lo 'cnrD ^lO-iAco 

.lAc5a^5 l55A^ ^ 'Uv-'? ,^-i-C)Ai5 ,_-».!^(ji lA^Ao ZoSDjID 
.]j^ci ^5 ^(jLiA-**! . . ] > V)m\ ^S)] ^cn2^_»5 IZoSdj ]_«-^.5Ak}o 

15J>aju-»5 ^oZo .^ZLi.k)ooi5 ^!2l.A20 .lAi^^ nS ^-^o 5,^^ ,.0 
.^-Ajbl *£1jAd cjl^ "i^ ]L]^ Isda oiJj^o .hr^] 1^ -"^^ 



]Z5q1D5Z IVkkJJ V.50TU ol |j-» i!)m t;^ A-iAo .^ > -^ >An 



^ 



r>J 



A^Aoj ^5 lA^'AiA .lA>^on •Z ^^ c7LiDa£3 IIjujo iljoi 



1) For ^]iD. 2) Kead ]L\^o'i 3) MS. CJlZoo]. 4) Add 
^-tr-»l^^ 5) The last letter of this word seems to be unccrrtain. 

B) MS. OXO. 7) MS. ^aiZ^« ^no. 8) MS. otiSdo and 

OT.!^. 9) Read UlDOCJi'j *r^Z;D IZVLu-nA? 



65 SIEGE OF AMID BY THE GREEKS. 

]t\^'i ^Ld U^OOli :Q-»AiALQ!^ l?j.Jl ZcA ^^TD po 

0C7I0 .^o^:^5 *n-*^4-^^ ^oio-nXk? •. "|Aj.LD,r) ^oiAoq-kj) 
"iri^y oocn ^ » V . '^ y yD ^crLO(Ti5omno .1?aili ^iiDA-a] 5 
1oAn55 ^4^0 .AV^: I^^dALd? ^^ ]3crLLo 'c^:v*-^ Q^ll -.r;-*-^!! 
.w^oi-juJOinsj^ o^kOj"! y -.01^ 1oai A-*] ]rD5 ] » \V)o ,]ocn 

p .|jL.lD0C7iv\ ^1 ^:n^2i *Q.^^4^ ]u^ po .(ji^iJ^osD :>aL 

]\^m ^J\ retail 1]o -.Uo. >..^K>? ]n^ tn.«.^ l^r>j? tDQ-2ir:5 

a£:;-KjO 1ALq>.»^ ] i CDjfg^ ^ »^^aio .*|5(TiJ5 Injj] ^^4^15 

•.lA-i_3';-»^l "iAjL^y^ ^ lilbo] cnZcA > • in ^O-.^^ 3^^o .riol 

.^.2L3o |^3Ajj .13q_» Aj->^Z 
*U.!k)0C7iJ5 lof^ oooi ,^ > ■,±i)Aio jD 35V^>-»r-»l^ LXYII. 20 

A:^j-»Z1 ^^5 l^iiAriri .UoDl ^ ^I^ZAjo ^nn\Aj? ^cnl^ 



1) MS. CL^i^. 2) MS. otulmZI. 3) MS. >coo.m ^m ^V). 
J. s. ^ 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. G-t 

oiXr: ai\noo\ y^ -."jZjUjkil^ joid \\.\<d po .VLk>.£:) 
j^;-KKr^ ch-ijiakii ^poi\n^ .o ^ io cru;OM^ ^Hv r^ ^"^ - -r 

5 *m£)05 ^p ^>^5 .(Ti2^ ^oijuJaXZj jJ? ooi J •] . «-^ ^ *->n 

Mxk)50 -.w^cnaLDpO ^ >q-d 'aiXa^l? 1v-k.o :Zjj2) l5aij ^1.5 
1;-D ..(tijZjd ^ilipli o^"^«Vo yo :loZ;rD5 OIJA •^oZ Oll^ 

jA ^(TLTi ^Amj^ "iZoJjlD ^tl\ ^^!ii)o .l5j'>>A a:^LDA-»"i 

IjjJDo^ 11] •.:>CL.yjD ^oin^ ]«ViK>o ^v^-^^0 LXVI. 

liilo V*^>1j 1v-u^^ oocn ^^.JLCiiLDo -T^-^-^r^? r^ '^o oooi 
.0x0 looi s>.ki:Z\ > ^o> ^jI^\do ]Zu10)o1 ^.A_j|<bo .Vl^4^o 
Ijcn ^il£L» j^ ^5 JD^;.^^:) -^As)] ^ oinD oooi ^ 1 V) i roo 
2o.r^1 ^ ]'r-m ]L]q :]o(Ti lAm<o ^Zj U-».4Xsd ^Ld ^\n^ 
il-KK-alDo Ijomi ,-IdA^ oooi ^-.ZlkkLc? .>^,ii^ |3 Iv^.Z ^TulrAo 

.^1 ^.jp ^k)Z ^ 1-*^^ ^^^ rr^-3^^1? ^0^ ^>.\i]]o 
^Z^ ^oAa.J> 5Q-D ^iD oj^Zu*]? ],»j:g)a^\ ^ ^5 oo^^] 

1) Read^i^^jilj? orai\^^]?? 2) RcadUjO? 3) MS. 
Cn\n\. 4) Road ^_i_Xlo? 



63 RETREAT OF KAWAT). 

*-»Jlo oocn ^(710 nn^ ^j.^. l^jiX .A^-^5 ]Za^o .^j.>jA-»"i5 
^giZo^ i ^>^ li^ j^ ..^no i fe;\^^^ ^-»? V » ^>1 LXIII. 

^-»5 5Q-D .^v-ii-*? ll^AiiZ lAr^oiaLD ^cTi^ ^otuo -Ur^ 
5,^ ^L ^o L'^ ]5cnj ^ 1^^ ^i1o ..u_.cn5o1 ^ ^i^a^ 10 
^5 \^l-i .C7iA_»ASd ^ c^(Tu.jai.5Qj5 ]n\V) Zq^ I'-vjJ-*"! 

amjo a^D^-KjIo 0V90 ]^i.i»k^ "|5aiJ o^rp-i cnkii looi A^]? 

^ll ]-iu£D-^5 I^V^ ^ ^.,5 '\\i No .a-KK£L»"|> ^ j-Dolo 

°^ak:anj> Qj^k^l*] ^ .^6i3aj» 1oai M_»5Zj ^4^0 ^^jiA 
:>cA-»1 lAij,iDO ..v^] ^rub ]^^ y? PI .^oiNnocLi lo 



rCll. .1>ai ..^01 5QJD MkL» jJDO .1V»~vjh-^ ]1. i , KJ I>C1L 5p» 

]yL\^ ^oAj ^i]j5 y-*] :Z;j2 "i'CTiJ? cnkiL w->(no 1^0 ■ V) 20 



1) Bead Ljl.C1^^ 2) MS. Oj.>^A-»1>, wrongly. 3) MS. 

v.->C7lQO*^,-». 4) Read, Avitli Martin, 0j-2l>o( . 5) See Assemani, 
^i6^. Orient., t. i, p. 284. He gives a\D,0 and r)V>V «] 6) MS. 
^0V)O1>. 7) MS. ♦ID0;-»»4^-vv-^- 



CHRONICLE OF JuSHUA THE STYLITE. G2 

UiL, Q^'rCi^n^ s^oL ]L]o .c7iA-i;-«-k5 oi^o OTi ^\n^o 
]sn5] ^o I n .^al^ o^5|jo ]\0)lo ^ym s ^o jlO ...jcn5o1 

1,1 I ^51 .0001 '^^-KK-.^^ (JLi^j'Z ^OlXo p .]Ll1D,.Cl^} 

^ ]\l,^^^\o .]\\n'^ oi^^QjiiX ^oQg^i lAj-jj-Lori looi 
10 '^oi'LmId ^ I nnV)Z^ ..U>^ ^5 1^ i oi UJ. Zak}y£:i . C7ij.i.3iZ 

..vPTIjl:D)5 ]on •^ 0iZcL21j;-kj ^j5 ^^^SD .,_-i-2l4io 0001 
0001 ^p» 1>Ut j^O .OOOl ^^4^1-kjZ;LD ^oiA±j-^ ^"tiSib 

^Ti^r^iDa!^|.K>,k)030 -."Ujcoi ocoi ^j.^^ j.k) ']jov^o :]u£D3Q^ 
.OOOl ^^SdASd U .,^jtj-Ld j.>j a-».nk2\ :Vt.,>-(^ oooi ^-»t'Z' 

^5 OOl :^>.KrL»1 y OlZ^4^'^^ :^-j-J.jiLDO OOOl ^"U-.^ 
.'°^\4o ^OTiAlD .^\P 1^icuj5 ]n^n U-'l ^ . A/^l r^ 
^Ol • niio ^01 p : ] 1 i' (^O ]jJ0010 |ju£D)Q^ ^ ]±D(n 
^TLliD p»^ y>2)"i :|^Xi) OOOl r^r^'> ]^V^ ^ OOOl ^->.\^ 1 



1) The MS. seems to have ^a»K»A^. 2) MS. "U^OT;^. 

3) O is more recent. 4) Read ]» ^\ l 5) MS. o\\V^\. 

6) Read .mA ^Kr^nl 7) In the MS. a superfluous ^J is added 
here. 8) This is the reading of the MS., for which Noeldeke sug-. 

gested pov^O, from the Greek Kopvvai. I prefer, however, Mr 
Bensly's conjecture, ^1.0^0. 9) O is more recent. 10) This 



Avord is on tlie margin of the MS. 



Gl SIEGE OF EDESSA BV THE PERSIANS. 

ocn toai50 .wj.l^k)Z1 ^pAn*^\? ,__iAai Vii-j] ^.^ 5j-»o 
cnl:^ ^ai-.o ,]L±^^ ^ . A jj] jzu^jIdo ..i^u..5oA-*1? 
oocn> .cjiJLlD oo^iXZ]? "U-j]]© . V\ I m n >m^r)o\ Ij-i^^j"! 5 
^'jL oiX ^Ajj IsdIid aiku Ui^n]o 'r:^i^^ •^mi.L^'j] 

"jA-fcJ^ m ^nc^ n • ^] , Vninm aikL») aili-»5 ^Lo w-aj]] : ai5Zvr^5 

'w-.cnol].>o,^o . och In^oi? "ir^-uf^ U^^l? v 9 ^ ■ ■ - ^^7 .'lAj-.r^? 
y 11^7 li^^^^Sr^ ^^^? .1rJ~^'V col ilDlo ^ onnN Zlo 

.3|dALd ^oZ ^SoJi^ ^i-Qlb J? ^^1 I iV>.cnlD ,-Jl*^ -l^oij 

^1 ^^i-i^Z"i ^r-»CT .(JiAj.jj^ u-i.i)|£i ^1L6 |>^i aV)? ^^^4^ 

.Aj] ]z:i\<r) cAj ^) il^^l X»<^7 .jOi^ oiX wkA-»o ..1, i i n 5l 
^^^ ^5 ^1o .^i^ ^^cno lAllD ^Sb]? In^J^ ^.^ZuA 
. >\ 5pi . IZqX.0 Aj1-»-»Z1 »^J-!^? ^^::i1d .octi ]n\V) cA 20 
^ov ^*-^ v^\ >»-»r*^ |n^i£D> ^j-Sdo .^\.*.£a^ >mV)o\ 



1) MS. $AiD. 2) A word is evidently wanting here ; perhaps 
|>jALd. 3) MS. ^cn0V-K». 4) is more recent. 5) MS. 

^^0. 6) MS. ^j-±ln^cnSD. 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. GO 

l-KK-iAk) . w-»ai5ol ^ !;-» "iZ"|o . Li^ 15tij ^Ld Wo •o : ot1^-»-k. 

0001 _-»-KK_.Z-2)0 ..OTlJLk) IZAO^ 0T^£) _-,5 ZoOl Ij-XlD 

ai2i ^cA.^? Ij-icjio^ 'q-kk^l*! Vo ]Aj.jj.k)5 <jv^i.jL ^(Ti\o 

^jiO .^OTloL ^ci^julb U « • i] j^ ^aiAj-5o5 Wi. a-»Q-Do 

^oiiV)o W^-o 1-i-ic";^ 1"U.-.,uiii^o ^Ti.Sos 'q^j-jdIo "jAi >,\o 

^Qg^^oo .J'i'^D w»oai ^1 i\^ ^j5 l-iLj -r^i r-»^ Ul W^j y 

15 "iv-^^-* l-»-^o .^ > n;nV)^ ^ > N-.] ^A.«-j5 ]5a_» ,_k} iJiA 

.n<^ip "ij'Q-il "iJi-i] W.-i.r:ai ^1 '05^^ . . oooi ^j.^ ji^^^on 

\l^ O^ 'aXlto .]Lm on 1. a^O »^j"| ]]] GI-ILQ 0001 ^ I O i;^ 

• lAjj-D IriiO-D ^n 1 ... 
20 ;n\ 1,1 > ^5] ^^oZ jiL^u -.IkDO-i? ^5 cn3A.ci.!^ LXI. 
^»^\» -.l-i-miia^p ]] i.»^ W^rial:^ ^Iid ^^o ."to5 tijZ ,_Ld 
IJo .»^!^5 ^Zooi U "jZ\JL-»jlD> ."U-jlUllo A^l-K. "joi? .?oo\ otZ^ 

:>CLDO .OTT);^? OTI ^01 |» i • ^D? IAjL-iAO jJ] .^CDO-^^njIj 



1) _1d is repeated in the MS. 2) is more recent. 3) As- 
semani, Bibl. Orient., t. i, p. 261, (001. 



59 ATTACK ON llARRAN. SIEGE OF EDESSA. 

^.2uo "|Aj._,,Ld ^k) A^] ».mn *n..2U .i-K^r^ looi Z.-»lj ^> 
"iI.>.K^ yMr::i\o .^v^\« ^Aji ^TiJiiD ^^4^^ ^otl j \ s 5 

^-jOIjJoXAj . "i> :]-»-Jv.kk!i w-.5oZl»1 "U-iDja^j I^XlD ^ looi 

'alii1 .^.o;Cf)\ 55A_»15 ^QjcTi "UiD>a^5 ^j \^2^ LX. 

Za.K>j? ]^;>Lk) ^ 1ocji ]L] ]±^] ]jTi£D * '. oij^ >coo 1 i \ fyrpo 
]J5 w_*TiiD .-looi wjcnoA-»] 14-^jD y? IZon > n\*^0 I'^jnV 15 
;.,o ^ j.:do .lA-i-lOyOn ^i^Acd]? ^^2:i_.]J ]ocn ^r:i-.>D VV » ^, v 
.oilDi. ^O;^]o •. 1-1-0050^5 "iJV-^r^ t::^ r^^ ^0 .l5cru 

1ZIj5 ^0102)] I>QICO .^:::;-K» CriV)\5 ^jlID^'O^) ^rn\o\n 

»^^cno .]Aj^,V?\ 5Q_d C7i5j»i^5 |joov^ ,-1=d ^iLq^o .^0150!] 



1) MS. I - <^ > ?>' 2) C is more recent. 3) See Assemani, 

Blbl. Orient, t. i, p. 285. He gives ]->- 00-^5 and ^itoo. 4) I 
have removed the word ^jwOr^ from this place in the MS., and 
placed it after |J5 in 1. 16. 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THK STYLITE. 58 

.15q-» J.J. 0001 ^ > '^^^c? I-D -0.230 li-V-.? ^jCn^iD i^oijiol 

^tl\:d oV).,o .Zi^i^^j ujOI? 1Zuj.iD !>q\» ^'^nN j-doIo 
]j.^J*| onoa^o .0001 ^jj.-»p>^5 ']cn >r;.gi^o jjJp "Uh-^-ic 
*-.)p*j ]ooi ZuIj ]50T-CD ^cn\o') I^V-ii a^-^lo .^oio^ik^j 
5^ \\\\ l.-smp ^-^^ ;-fe^^o .15Q-M.X ]±^] .ocdIo ..IAjl^jId 
50-0 ot!::^ o^kX^ ]joi *i^;.a-^ oir:) ]iJiL s^n » o ."JAjJLl 
^o_2U 0*1 ..oiXi? |j-iDi^!^ ]Zj-tyV)n Wnn 1 o]? ."|A-»-^3y 
.]i i •? ]V)>r) oilnJL y^ I ni5 :>cA ]c^l y^] .•]t\n<^\ oiZoX 
1, 1 > n5] ^otX .i:^o1j ^1> . oiN i kkX ,0^^ ^5 ] > mno 
10 jji^ .otjl\\V)0 [ota5Z ^jjo]|jo ^£ioiAj ]Z\i >,V>^> vJlXu? 
^Qj-Loru ^oG^Lo\ ^*DQ-2U joN ^1o .. ^OljZlO ^jio OOl ]L'] 
.oilaX «-> 01.^0 Nnojo .."il-KKni ^ot-uJq.^4->-^Q -^tX 
'.]Ll^^\ vQ.!.!^? ^oil:^ ^Aj5 "jooi 4^-^? ^^4^ TT'? V ' ^M 
y] ]ZLi-.yLD ^ « i ^ro ^r:i>^5] P p .;n\ ^oiZol^ .^^tm 

15 ^OIOA.*!? ^olo OlZoX "JZI0 ..ffi I ..ylD ^flD A > -^S jlOA 

\;£D^ ^ ^^01 l±-i.-» ,nM5 ^Aj.^5 oou]? .*jpL-i.^5]J oiX 
^ ^1 i\o •? Iki-Lo ^1:. :>o t olo -.100155 1v-fe-»-X ^ > g^ ^ 
^DA ^ZvkA 1, 1 i ^5] ^5 ^joZu**! .1r-»-^? OOl iooi5 ]Ll^ 
20 r^ oooio .o\nnV)!l 0^3^ Uo "iv-4-^ ^ i ^^ZL ]v^ ^V 
U? ^k)o .^ i s'» M^Al. Ildao 1^^^ ^ .oiV)S ^fjsjAkD 
0001 ^j;4J? ] i V)ooi> ^ii4^ .. ^oiZa!:^ > ni \ *]j.uOUL ^>.K.:ij»1 

1) Head ]rD iv;^50? 2) MS., according to Martin, Q>a.2U. 
The word is no longer distinctly legible, but seems to Guidi to 

be y...£L2, which would be ^0,0.212/ 3) For Zj] U^?. 4) See 
eh. xiii. 



57 SIEGE OF TELLA BY THE PERSIANS. 

..^LdZ ]Qcr\ Zu.]? UlDocnji ou^ po .^tlI:^ 'r^U1? ^•-•I 
]^rr^\ n V^JlI^O ]v^-i^^ .U?OTl^ ^ wkk:^]? ^^i^olll ^;-k.O 

^TU^ ;^(^Q 5501^ l-*.-»j-0 OCT loCTI ^^j^pASD .D . ]V)V^ .|r:)0 

jlLo "iAi^4iD5 150-© ^o ^Gn.i\\ •mj"l3o .^Ji2i ^-^iji^lDo 10 

.oeTM ."jjaj* ^ Zq-kkJo aiZ;4^ ^crui^ ^k. ^ on« i :1A1jJu 

*iZo;.-»J^^ ^1 -*-uMo :1r^-vj? cnLo-r-L^^ ]x^ p ^? 5Q-0 15 
cjiloTD yZ ZcA ^Hf^? ]>-Kn^5 oA A^w^Z] ]] -."UlDoai)? 
CTLi Zocn ]>.kjl.::j» ]]? ^^i^ 1,.-»^ .cnkiL looi L,]j U^-^ odi 
^^55 locn 4J.ib? Uk^I^ -.1^^ ^j^>o> ijZ^ii IA-lJDjZ 

•^OIqXl ^pZ|jO .' r-K» ZoZ^ j-K» "U-SdOOI)? 1LLk» wj-OJi ^ m in Aj 

1^0 .^oi5o1 w^y ^sio^l A^UAo ,^lai ^\^o .]r^^] 20 
^^•rOl^ . cjiZoXl-KK^ 1oai A^]? ^j^i^1 ^? W;^ LIX. 



1) MS. orH-i^iDO. 2) MS. jIdZ]?. 3) The MS. seems 

to have ai-»-K»5o. 

J.S. 8 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 56 

.IAj-..^^^ '-<Ti\ 'duoV^Na i? an m ^L] ^L ]q(t\ Lj\y ^j 

]oai y^\a V) ^Cn^ ^5 001 i^OlZj-.^ Ai n^ ^]\ .. Vn*-^r. 
. OiAX^LD ] fc T^'iO ^ \ Q^50"i0 /]1\k» jJ2lL :*w_»O1-»-J0^JJ 

.en i V)o\ Z^j^I*! ^5 tjon .olo ,qXuo > .m » m ^ \^ i^ 
5 ^;-6J5 ,^ i \ i]] *m-i.^1o ..]Z\ I n ■ n ^oioA^l5 ooi t^-g^ 

]-»On\p ..jiol p "J5a-» Zo^ > .m > in«-^. ni^ (jlV, 0001 

U.r:o ."lAjL-t.V^n ot2^ ,^ j V)i m^ ^..Ld ^r^? cnl^ A-.1 jj'lSJoo 
oi^ .m > ^ (^llo .oili. ^a2lAj5 ^oiA^q4^ UJlA!i ^cQ-i-^uj 
oooi ,^ I V) I ny "U^^^N ^Lo] ^5 ooi .w-»cjia^^o Ij'o-fe^J 

lolooi ^4J? ooi .-w^-^j]] .mV)n\ oiZ^ vpjjiuj .•l3a-» ^ 
.]j-;rD,V}\o oiZ^ ^^-»aio"|;ji)0 . )Ai i,V)\ ooi |j-r2iVrD drX 
•]-.5oaT_.5 Um ^ ^oil^ ]L.o AjIIdooij 1j^^ ^otIol ^^JiLbo 
^li.^^j5 ^tllSd ^]-* -."Urojo-Sii. Uq.^^ ^rt^^ W? ^Soo 
ykJ\ yOji ■ ^1 a-»Q-Ki A_»llDy^ ^010 .talib? yj^ *L.oi ai2i 

15 j-K» "Lpi "iio-* ,_Ld oiX Oj.[-»] ^[f-»ai] .oi^ ^_.j-i.^ALD5 061 
..w«o\i? |j|Lb ^ looi .0 I 1 m l5;.[^rD] ^1? ^Sd .IjIId? 
]1ni n oocn ^ > ■ ->^. 3 jjj ooi ^^lo .l5a^ ^_Ld A-^kJ ^-»,.^oio 
oooi ^ i n^i^ALp .]A£30j ^01 ]r!j]y 0001 ^j-^rj Uo .-Vi'OTIjj 
^V*^J5 ^-^-^t ^-»1 -.iJa^ oi^n? u-iOiarplA ii n ^..^.q^jAIjoo 

20 tiA?? .Ir4^ ^^ r^i^ r^? 1?ai .jj-OoZ |i^ ^^ fc^^?? 

^OIqXl ^^£DJ0 :1ZqjO^ ai->-.COi^ 0015 ]jLSDy(l£i ^Q-ljJ 

..Ujotlj cJLO 0001 ^r^5 wjOi IAdo^ oZI U;-^^ •VifZiol 



1) MS. 01 , 10V)\> 1). 2) Read oiX 1 3) MS. Pr-^j-lDO. 
4) MS. apparently oI-l-JO^^J? ^'>) MS. ]1V^". 6) MS. uuOlO;>DO. 



55 DEFEAT OF PATRICIIJS. DEATH OF NA MAN. 

]j-^,k? ^Ld ^? j.^ .l-»-^V^? 1^^? K^^^ T^^^^^ -^1 

^5 ]irn.> , , V oil .a\4p Glial looi Zu]? U^ooivXo 
"lZ]j5 1ocn .^^ ^>A^o ]^£o;£)7 ]n\V) ^^5 5Q«o LYIII. 

jrillSD -Sou v^l CJLl 1oai ^;.-y«lSD . ^^C7l5o]J Ij.JLjuT:)?') ^^ 

AJ\ .oi\ ^^_i,^^n)5 001 ]-KK-i-a-LD5 lA-t-JL-ijA^-k) ]] |Al^5 

J.D ^-.? ^LOU .:>Q!:iiZl Ol^ ^.feZiA-a-J ]] "toiDjXLlD? .Ol-iAl 
y£^u ;aA£d1 r^l^? ^^-1 ^^ ^.*^iD?? :>o^. ^ikL» IjoilS 
*jZ-1 j.j_^. U>-i.jB-iD ^1 .^^Lk) |^5Q_^5 U<bo .^ai5o]r^ 
'A > o< Z] ..^r^? |JA^ r-»-^ Guo .oirD '^cil» ]A-iA^ 
oil^ Zocn A-K>,.2iJZ]o '.(TLM^'f^ ]o(T\ M2^r:i5 ^61 "jZo-kkSd 
^iiZ ]jai ]jAo|jo 5Aio .C7ii n«ki\ ^1] :>aoo .oiA^iD;^ 
ArooZ Ijoi 1Z"| U^1 ?Q-o> ^5 oiZo-Kj^kA .Liloo ^-lIdcL 20 
I>Qr50 ^v^ .c^V k. ]n\LD UIj-id'J y| .}■ » '^ aiJ-»-jo» ,_Sd 
V»?oTL. .ch^l^ 1^^ ."PZ Za\ I^Sd po .]r::;-aX "iZ|jr 



1) Asscmjini, ^iZ^^. Orient., t. i., p. 2G1, gives [1 i ^m i^I). 
2) Assemani, loc. cit.y ^. >.Q.^»A_»Z and *.-i_-ll|Z. 3) Read 

1 > , .. rn^ ] 4) This word is no longer legible in the MS. 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 54 

^^4^ cjujoQ-* ihn-«_J5 OCT! ]i ni;lD ^>^£i^1 y po .^.4^0010 
^Ti i \s lO^io "i3a^-K>A 0ZI ] > m3>a^? _.»> ] l-k. [, LYII. 

10 (tl\ ,^ 1 omV)> ]Kn ..o .oiZoX taXioj 1Z^^ o.Kri-»lo ^V)\j? 

*ai\ Zooi *AXl5 ^i4^ .oV>o y Ur-^-»-»? T^? oi-iZii. 
U-»->^ oiXo '^.^'l oo;_.]r:i o a i nZ] ^5 ^^oZ •l-»Q-it lr^iV)N 

15 ^\-i-DA r^o ..ooi I \s ^i]V)\ :>aDo *ci-ii-6^ A-1-^5 nsV)»Q 
..0001 ojjjcp y "toj-oXo -."U-kJooiil oooi ^tuAj] ]-K.5o]r:) 
^ai5Zrnn\ »^^ai ,^0 .^0^1 q-k>1do ] »<r>_n\ ] > mj^n ^ \i5] 
1 1 V)^n\ "U-kJoonj"? Uj->-»? oi^;-» oi-»^ ..o\\n? ^ 1 \u] 
.a-»AiAkiX 5Ai IJo .lAl^^o? ^oi As 'AXsljo q-i-kkSdZI? 

20'i3oiJ ^^iLo .ai5Ar2 lL.>v» oiZmo l-i-k}^^ *a-*i-^ y^oi yi 

• • • ' m 



1) MS. oH^Ql2i4.kkJ5. 2) MS. vfe^aio. 3) MS. 

»{Tl\ I /^4^l- ^) Such appears to be the reading of the MS., but 
the word is probably corrupt. 5) O is a later addition. G) This 
is the reading of the MS., but perhaps corrupt. 7) MS. . t n]. 

8) The O seems to be a later addition. 



53 AREOBINDUS DEFEATED. SIEGE OF AMID BY THE GREEKS. 

ioo;i ^ l|I_yj_£Do .,-j-rDj.^ALD jD ..^ > n^? ]i.jL ZcA 
^j5 ioSdZ o^3]r::) .'W^lol. ^^^^ r^ o o 1 J^L] 'U5ArD 
.w-.cnaii.i. 1Z]V^\ ll.j.^0 ]-i_3ocn ^1 -.'U-^dj'q^ )>ai. 'o ■ 1 '^L] 5 

oZ) .;^1 p *^^o(Tio *£i_.f-4^ Za\ |> n\>^ ^£)a-jL.\n\ 

Ut^ r»^ 1l-»-V5-^ U->-^? ^^ .*ij3A^ -jA 00010 ^Lq.\ 
OaO-b ^aiA-i-1505 ^ PI /q-LLdA-*! U ^> ^oi .^ i\s 
•.Ir-L-^^'l Lx^^ ^j.\ai ^ V*.£D>Q^ oZ] ^5 p .ylb*i Zo-^IO 
•/^oiA^; aV) .on* PI .^jikiL a-»AiALQ!^ o^il*] ]] 
.>, > nAjilo IT^Z] ^oi.ns oil^o .u_»ai5o]Jo ]]A\ ^iiZ]© 
"iA^Z oooi ^ I r^'^jLo ^4^0010 ^5 ^o-^i.^ Aj-cdj LYI. 
. > \<^A ^1 po .jId]? ]3o aN ^011:5 tnmV)\ ]in-i.r55 ,_-j_!i,»^-Ld 
P? Pu^si^ ^V-K.Z*io :']Z|I_^u:d IAqAl^ Vr-vj-^? ^jij-doZ 15 
•liDQ-KjArD -j|-i«? J>OrLD ^otZ^ ^r^Z] ^r-»oi ..^jio ^_Sd ^ohjAj 
.."UxDj'a^ 3Ajo ^i1o ..^Z ^ ^^in^o .]Jy.^i_lQli ^1 j-oolo 
|j;-K»1o ^1^2) cnLn-*5 ]j*,:^r^ ^ ,^? r»-» -^^1 Q^3>"i ]Jo 
^oio .jId] ZqZ^ t^-^Z? ]jUL lAu^ 3,-» •.l3o5]Z C7iki») 

^JiD tyvV "Ij-jCDjO^i ^Olol^JM ,00 : ]\ tV^n*^ ,^A_» ^Ol \ » kjO 20 



1) So the MS., for Q^^jZ]?. 2) MS. o\sV)\. 3) o is 
more recent. 4) MS. c4-*-^O10. 5) O is more recent. 

6) MS. ^(TiL^'i-MlD. 7) MS. lU-^. 8) MS. ctioWk.. 

9) O is more recent. 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 52 

.^Z^ m .(Ti2^ Zocn "Ul^? 1,J.1 ^Ld ]jcn U^V^ U^1 .-.-Lpcnl 
^i. ^TLl ^ALb p -IAjJjId ^oilriX lZaj-.Z;lD5 U'^-vj-*! 

UV^ CJlll 'Anc^m y ^> joaX .^ > l] ^j-feJO ]AxIiyV?0 
.'^•Ij ")] I ..CO |k:>5 ,_Sd v^nro |]o .]n ••> ]Ai n #0 vc)5 oii^ 
.|r:5j_o A\no o"j .loaij « > \ 5,^5 I^XLd La\ 1j-yOU»1 5,^ ]]1 
^d-i-^-Z] V"! .5,-i y lc)C7ij ^j |ii2ik) .^.co-i,j ^^h]^ !r^^ 

t s 

10 5r-» r-»1 ^r-»k^o .o,^]? ^->-^1? V-t^ Mi^AkAo o V^o iASqX 
^^ooio jD_»;-4^^ ItJ-*-^'! -IZoNi >^ . i ■ ijf ]ASZ wjOIoXl 
IIDQ-kjZ ^1. "|;-»0 \\ i n3] Ao^kJO .^TlklL "i"lI_^^_£D V^p^o 

cnV)S tool A-ilo ."jAj^r^ r-^^V' « i ^|3 ^jjoki^^o \hi ZoZi 
.ySo"! ^ o^^ ^m^^ooio ,£i-i;_^o .^v-^-ii ,^j"2iZL viD.:^5Z 

15 vOTiV)S ^]o(Ti A-ilo .] I ro-;^> IZ;.^^ ^- ^—^ oo^V)\ 
t)^ocn ^ i ^1 ']jai "ij-n^l^ ^ ^5 A-kkJ .^_-»»2iZL ^.j.i.^j'i 
.^TikiL5 |_>_Ldo)5 U-i_kj5 cnA-»-£D5Z5 <^JV)\ ^C7i3oto %^A^o 
,-CL2) •.'lln-K»A .n\V?\ ]LooAI>,j 0001 ^.V^V) ]J> ^^^^^ 
yO, n MO -^oijoto A-i]? 1Z)5 ^oT^iili. )4^ ^ai-»Aj5 

20 IAj-ovo "i-^oijot 'oo^]o .^otZi-.? "jAniijLo ^/)'^oclo 

• IZoySD ^ » ^IL ^Lllo ]]^L» lA^LDyiD 
.1rJ-»-^5"j A-I-05 ^_jAoi ^qj] ^5q-11> ]pKj p ^5 jar) LV. 



IS 



1) MS. Or^l?. 2) MS. apparently WnO?. 3) looi 

on the margin. 4) The MS. adds here a superfluous v^]. 5) O is 
more recent. 



51 CAPTURE OF AMID. RELEASE OF RUFINUS. 

• oiA-^ki^Z oj-ii^o ."l-»?Q"Q •--»?o 6-L±jLj.n 0V90 :lZ^ui_.jlnX 

^Ld .;.^.»_^5 ]5a4^ ^oAd oAj^o .^v;^^ ^ 1 <^ ^ ]i^L 5 
.]ji«._rD^^^ |^5Z ^ ^£:iX ^ I an ^LjL \^y\ ^o-a-ijo clq^I 

.Z;j2) >^-KKj,V)n? "iAili^^SD ^CTi)Z1 ]^ ^^(T[ '^o ."|oai 
|^05Q-»;.£3 x^am^ ^5 1;.n_»-k) .|jo^kA jd;.:lSq1^ ^^->,^-Z]o 
•.]iiAD5 '^DOCQ^ ^ aili. ^^->.So,>..£q II^-^Lid Iv^l^? o&i 



1) Head aia^j-Kj]o ] 2) O is more recent. 3) MS. O m n]o. 
4) MS. ^1. 5) O is more recent. 6) Read ^jA-*]?? 

7) MS. O^AcdIj, but the fem. is required. 8) This passage is 

quoted by Assemani, JBihl. Orient., t. i., pp. 20, 21, 288. He gives 
. > o mi:7'j and ..ju^^^ZIo ; and has 0*01 ]i *^]*^ \^], and 1Zi-it|. 
As to the word |^05a-»j.£) (Assemani, X^du^i^), it is written on 
the margin, perhaps by a different hand. At present only the letters 
^ are legible. 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 50 

^ I N^t Q-».Kr:i^-I1o .cn_»Za>jZ ] i mjio^ oocn ^jZAtdIdj 
^^4Sd .]iS:') ^ » > ^ »^1 ^ZZ]o .0001 ^ I V) I n &uLa^L'> 

|-i,rr)>a£) cri.>-\s ooon ^ » v^ m<nn . ''^J^^id ,_L.irii '^ Zooi 

^ |]o rn^o > ^V ^\^lD liiL. ^k) ZoCJl ] » O lASP ]]o '."tllD 

"UkDO^ ^> lA^)o5 ^_a.Xoi ^5 12)]5 .(JiZor^i.^5 ^^Sd ISqj 
.^.ci-L. |jL-*i ,.->-j'i^o\o ];n .. \o lAt CY^nA^ .,^ooi ^'iL^lo 

10 IZoponn \\v?W)\p ,_k: Q-*.LDai]o ] i mjig^ Q-»-^?l1 "U^oio 
^ > >^V-t ]i.Si.^'> ^"^-6^ .^ai5Z|] ^aii2)TiJ5 on\V)Z]o .w^cji 
"toV'-Q^ aiD^Z"! ^oxilD ^ i ^^ ^ ».«^r)>j ..dT-i.!^.L otdAuj 
^5 Vr^1 .]^o^o tloo ] I \\n 0001 ^j^i.Ak5 ^Q-iAd? 
"l3Q-» ''o^ ^o "jZoj-i^oik^r^ ^oZi^JO ^oiZo^i ^ ^o\")ZZl 

IT) ^Qj^ oo5"to lyms ^o i no .ixXi^rD ^_k}5 ^^j] ]Zcl^ i ^ kktd 
. 1^)0-05 1A\2. ^Sd l5a^ «-*v4j Q-»A^1 II-i-^io 1r^>^ •.•~*r-»-» 
Ij-^jIo ,]L'ri n > *iAj..«_jc^ a\n ^-Zlo omk?? jjuXl:. locn po 

o5ZAmLn\ A.1.KJ0 -looi A>^ "|;4^? ^^ .^(nZ;4^ '^^T) • 

..^-L-.^nrn ^x-K>? "jlD >^->] Ipoi lZa->-^^ ^\-i-i:oi ^ .^^tuLLs^ 

20 y^mlDo Jo -.^li)! ,^ > ii j] ? »^j1 IZojlnV-a-lb? ]1nin Jo 



1) Read "jA . mn7 without 5? 2) Read l£l^,h1 3) Add 
IZjjOD? 4) MS. .Lc-CD. 5) O is more recent. G) Asse- 

mani quotes this passage, Blbl. Orient, t. i., p. 274, giving kj^'^ > D, 
w->-^^L.,CD |^-K», and oZu>JO. , 



49 SIEGE OF AMID BY THE PERSIANS. 

|jj>j "JVL.^rDO U1 i^i^-^Ii oooi ^ I o g^'i "U'iCLO « i i n 
u-.c7i5o1 Zr-»^ZZ] ^j-lcri ^4k)o .'o > nA^lo oo^i Ucnj'olo 
o^jAidIo .l5a-» ^LL]o |iii^ o;-2i-»oZ1o .Zocn l^^gjZiDo 
gj^rpo .0001 ^j„ul^i^> ^^4^ -lAl^i m^^ lA±-.^^5 iij'Z 5 

|LqX)5 -.IjOU? |^riV-4^=^ ILdqID vOyillUO .'vOjI ^Zj-»LkJ5 
l .ovV otJ^ *£l.2i:iD> Pu^ ^>^dAj»1 ]]o .^OT-IId^Q-IJ -a-j! 

^oiX Zooi A-^l? ^oi Ur^^ ^ ^l1o ..Oil. r-»^Aj1? 
dimcDJo OLO looi A-i*!? ^^ i \ >]J .^}.>j0 *ml.a^Q-CD>'|Ao 

1;^Ak)o -looi ^j.nk) ^^1 ^i. ^^r^A ,^^? JQ-o LIII. 

^o^ n .A\.2U5 w_»CJl lAjjOIiii ^(TI-l1Q-.j.J5 ^^^iOlo "JOOI 15 

1;vm^ ]j]Ld ^AjJjo auo\V?i Im'i nno \£i\zi^'> "U-Cov^sii^ 
•.Inib ol "Uiu-H* lolDr^ ^oS\ ^o^^iiuo -."(jAi^jo 1;laL50 
^^1 ^^£^> w-.(Ti "IAjjod ^ ^siiZi ^QJjnJO 15,10 ^1 voNv>io 
• Ij]!^ »^:i^> V*r^1 ^-"r-*^ .A-»U-*-^ I'Q-* ^^-QcA :>Q-»5ZZ> 
m\>A^ ^^di ^^Ld ^oia-i-±i V»^ia^ ]-»-£D}Gl^ vj-^p^? coi 20 
V»yLb"i ^j--. oi£D oooi ^r-» .^^.^^ ^oillo . ykoL ^oi \V?\ 
^Sd ;-iAj ^cjLLk) Ij-Ki Zooi U-oZ? 1A:d)o5 ]j2)|5 001 1j]1q^ 



1) O is more recent. 2) I.e,, Vio5lj?. 3) MS. Ol-iJ^^J?. 

J. S. 7 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 48 

.1Zl.;-D -'. i V)a n\^uO 0001 ,^;-»? ^--*Act1 'V»JX)Q-25> ^> 
Ol\"^\ .1 .ij --l^J-^iD^ ]io MLQ-»0 "t^QJj y^Ol] OU^ p 

] i rr)30 ^ \ ] i V)ooi3>3 |-»v^ oV-k. ^oo .^oi j \s oZ]o ^oiN %.^ 
Oyk:l y ^? ^-'-Na' -vJ*^^^ 5^^ai .^ ^oi.iLo ^qj] ^] i .. cd? 

5 ohL£D]o *a.m^L]o .On;nV?l^ ^Tl\ ''O J^Z"! ]]] n^\<^A Vr>\ 

'do^-olo -UIhi w_»oi> ^oXd ]-,;»oZ;Sd> wjdi2l ,nso j'^.-nV 
ilLSD'io^} «1L»_KJ ^oi >\s oi\ l^j-^ r^^ -l]-*-^^ 1-3 A 
'^tlX q-i5ZZ1o ."U-L^o "i-i-joai ^oi >.\\ s^oL ^a.2LCDoZZ*io 

lOQ^j-K.Zlo .OmSV>Z]o wJ^jjZZ] ] i >' (^? Ia^>? "l^^LL^O 

.> i nA->] ]r3;-»o |-».k)oai5 ^Ld ]]" .t <-n 
^ "iZ] -.Ijcti l-K.f-»Jo ami "jAJio ^;ms ^o » no LII. 
]n»o .V90 ^'^o^oao -."U^Vj^ Zu.r:A ^:^o |j.1cl»Z ^ ^^m 

k£)] ]L]o .1-»-3">j LlS^ (Ji1^> ]jLi 1 no li-».:xO0 ]^r) m ^] 

Id .]-k'ian ^CTi\n\ ]nio ^"1 1 no ,^^-kkLd p .w^oijo}] ]1da 
^ i ^^ ; m \Zj-1dZ -."lAi n ■ n j^5 5 ] * ^ V i *^^ ]j-i«iSD 

1.- i so ^ ;4^^ o\^Z]^ ^, i,\->1 ^ '^^£D .'ilkli-lCLK.O 



1) jJD is added here in the MS., but cancelled. 2) ID is supra- 

script in the MS., « 1 ^O ■ \ZuO. 3) For O Jl]Z1. 4) O is more 
recent. 5) O is more recent. G) This word is wanting in the MS. 
7) MS. CL2l£DoZ"|o (the final O is more recent). 8) MS. Cll^. We 
must read either ^ai5,XD Ol^l V^jZZIo or ^OT_.)jrD ^cnZi. CLL5ZZ"|o. 
9) O is more recent. 10) One would rather expect "|ZlD;.2L^0, 

or some similar word. 11) Read ^^^.j^lo, as in line 15 *£::j-kkLd. 

12) Forlli. 



47 SIEGE OF AMID. DEFEAT OF THE GREEKS. 

.]ri^r)5 :>Qj.ri£Dl ^^ ail^-i.>^ (Til^o ooi jLd1 ^ ^^tbL]o 

^a_1^2 j^ .A-.] » ro") IAj^j-Sd Q-yfA chr^ ]oc7i VfLD? I'r^^ 
.'L^^i^o ]Aj5ai) ZA-KK^Z"io ."|ASQl.n:ii Ir^-^ cjiX oocn 
5^^_» -."jAj-^jlD? ail^_i.>^ ?ar5 1ooi "|^Ak) U ^^o LI. 

a^ijo ^\-LSD'ia^^ U-*~»-» ^ ^o -l-^-JV-*-* A^-m^i ]) V) iZ 
^^^o .yZ ^C7i5 "jAj-jylD U_i-4J-4^Q-^ l^A vpcjii V).n\ 
.mv A ^7 ^a^£D -l^ZI oil^iili. ^jun^^-KKLDO ^^.2l4jI»o oooi 
*mDo? .mj-silDalL *n..2ij -.^^j-k*] *-^r-»^'i \-»-»i-»^^ ^^ ^? 
cnni locji A-kkJ> •.U-*-^-^^^? -carDo? "^-m-J-^oIo PZ? 15 

]1k>J^ A^1 ^-^Ji-31 11Lq.«^^? .--*j1 ^1 Vi?ol .]AjUr^^ 

o?(TL^^Z*j ..^otIq:^? ]_i^ocji>? U-iuJoO . ^01 1 \ s ^i|kA 20 

,n^ loon 1-i-lA? ^4^0 -11-^4^ Q^^Jtibl^ ^OlZ^ 00C7I 

lAjvn^ xOi^20 .1ALd5 i.^_.5 ^ 15qj ^o\i? ,y i ^V)(iZ^ 



]) o is moro recoiit. 2) MS. IrDjOSj. 3) MS. "U,^]. 

4) MS. >opi > ,^]c^ T)) o is more recent. G) MS. OjOlX^lZ^j. 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 46 

.|jai \^'r^ ]o(Ti l^oNs (TL^^i!D a^5 j^jOOI ^a-onASp ^.ij ,_j«k. 

: ^1 p ,^j cjiAjZ;Sd ^^k) |^nja!:i£DA\ "jooi 5011 ^^oir:? 
Ur-^-1 ^^ Vo .•'Uo3 ^Ld iJo 1A2::^ ^Sd y ^cnoAj ]]> 

JL.AlDj IlDj-L |ki\a-» 1oTiJ> 1^^ ]]? w-»a>^o :]-.;1d5 aiSDa_. 

. . . ^Ti^^ r^-^? ^-^^ --»0(n ^1^5 "jZo?!-^^ yi 

^ Ij-so -.lAn • ^a_k.^ •.I>Q_.j-D ^^^Z K>j;-.]^ ].*-Lq-kj 
oiX^o 001 ."iZojou Ao.^ .Zai^ oi-iA_»l5 .-"jAij^So J!jd] 

15 ^m_o^n ] 1 I c^Qj ,,> n loOlJ OlX 5,^ P] *^\\ ^0T._.)Z5 ^05 

\' > ^^ y \\ i n,.Lo :5ar) w^oioA^] "iloa^^Z ^5 ooi Jj 
^j5 p .^aia-»; g 10 \pm 01^ ^Aj -.IjJ^ooiji A> n!^ 
^Ij] ^m-»1? '"^iki* : ] i no, g^ o? l-i.-mol^ |j^^o5 '14^ 
liDOijZ^ ot-Q-Cl* -.'to^jAo wi.J-Sd5]Jo ^£)oJ^o ^^-iiP :5ar) 
20 *^^£cuo ]iDQ-K»Z ^iD ^a.£U5 oil^ ^Iplo .oiZoZ^ ^ito |-.;mnn 

• • • • • • ,^ ^ • 



1) The MS. seems rather to have ]Ai 1 ^'^^ 2) I.e., 

. .m n > v ;]i^ 3) MS. r-»Z]j. 4) Kead ;^? 5) This 

word is on the margin. G) Read ^lkL»0? 7) Head ,^^^0, 

as in ch. xxxviii ? In the MS. the ] is actually separate from the %^. 



45 KAWAD TAKES THEODOSIUPOLIS OF ARMENIA. 

.]..-lDoai35 IsdojoA^ ^o .U^j-^^ .£l\£do ]1]q . "Uid-^^j 
^ 1i.-»o .oiZol. ]ocji A^lj |j.jo(n> OCT! lL-»^ I>aL 

•. "IjlIdoCTIJ ^ 5ji^ •. U-*4^4^Q~0 ailQ^> :0C71 ]jL]y j_i_.. 

Zal oA Zooi A^lj ^^^ IZomOyli^ ^\1d .oiX v^\^]n 5 
.ai,no{Q oiri^j^o "lAx^jioX jclo ooi W ■> ^ rn cni-r::) ."Iri^k) 

^■^^J ^? 1^^1 ^ ^1 /]iXCLLi:i)1o l]V^'i V)Z Aj-. XLIX. 10 

. . ***** 

• Ijoi (Aj-^jd j^vq£d lAr:i5o5 lAnjL* ..^j>.;lni cnr^? IZoj'cnj 

.hoi U^v^ ^.^^? ^--^P -2)1 ^i.Q;n ^opij ..^ikjZl 

iljjorDo ]A1Lk»5 wjOoio .'IjZqIdo ]±^ oooij 5A^ ^oo 

,--L^A-»1o .]^r-^y 1^)0.210 ^\^^o -. on\k? ^ ooIiSdo 
PaZL? U::^-! .Uooji ilolbi. ^ ^Z] .^.jZIo .jL] WnV 

oil |^> ad]^ ^^ocn ^a«K»^LQ<D .]L,^ A^Ld ^^da y 
.o^Lolo a.^5Zl li^cn 1]!^ ^Ij ^Ld .jkA^^ cnSnlo^ 

1) MS. ^la.^arD>lZ. 2) MS. o^^). 3) MS. 

^^l^£)a£D?lA£^. 4) MS. ];JILL\LO)lo. 5) Read w^Oialk)? 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 44 

i^ioL} Zooi lr-»^-^ 1^0-5? ]]alnlao5 j^^ooi ^^^.ndD "Jj^oio 
(71^5 ] > W 001^5 .]j-r:(n oi^ looi A-*]? •.I>a!:ii^5o]J oooi 

.^ 'o^lo UVt^o U'O^ 1^1 ^Q^ oL] -.IALdcL 3A:o ^u> 
10 ai£i •.1j_.*iki^4^ 'Lzi£icr\L]Q 15qj cn^ Zl.v»-»Z15 JLoa^ oom^j 
cjL-jL-^^ _-,? Qjoi . ^oiAiiijiDj ^^cjL-i-*|L-V£) ^^ 1 ocn ISoaj.^ 
]-i50J1j5 "jAr:!-* A > n ^^L^u 0^.^10 ^ -^r-^O oH-^^^o 5o»> 
. > V *^ .Z^^i^cnZ] anLj odi ISdojujo oirD .. «-tOi05a-K»,Xo 

1.3:o>Ti.LZ'i ,tlD5 ^oiaSkA? ]k)A .oooi ^ i oiZ^«V) lal'j 

."|Zq-»-I]d1 ''aXcLiio .•o-iio'jZ"! IZoN.no ]iDo^o 



Ol^ •. ] I m-^^ I^^^LO 10^ ^ ^-»5 5Q-D »^1 XLYIII. 

20 U.fc-j^ cnl^jQ^ . » in .w-»di 15qj cnr:) A-ii-^^ZIj ]jai iLDO-i-ni 



1) MS. • - ' '^l I have placed the points after IjOI. 2) Such 
is the reading of the MS. ; but as the ^ is a later addition, we 
should probably read with Martin d\^0 i^nLLj. 3) This seems 
to be the reading of the MS., not wj-JOj-ftJ. 4) O is more recent. 
5) MS. -.jiCn-HL.Zi2) . 6) O is more recent. 



43 SINS OF THE EDESSENES. 

]i * >:? WoooV^ ^-»-^-^ ^;1d|jo .-^Xi.'Ajj ^j.ki*v»55 5 
p "jZor^A en I n^»l cnl^^D ^ ^-.? ]]? .^jI ^^^^^Id 

^I. :>OjiD ;:^1 ^oZ y^O :|jOjJD ^e---^ ^-»-^^^1 H>1 

odi .^AroZ oiAlD? 1j"| ^lio Jj-^j? oiAXLqIi :'UjV^ 
_j.k)>5 ]jv.Lo.mr:^ ^^a..KK^^ASD5 cnkiL ^i 1 n!:i ]u^ p? 10 
^DZa\ A-»1j.uA^o ^i^yLcLO ^-.v^^AmLo U^Q--^? ^uAoiX 

]jL^ U^ 1ZAj]Jo .Aj] ^oLd ]a1d lri]J jlolyl W.65 
^515 ^^^ .o.Kn^ ^A-^LnX -.lAa-j-^l? ]o'^ ^ .^Aj] 

^ 1 . WVn^ ^JL^^5 ILd ^-.1 .U^^Q-»-^^ »^^]-K>JO ^Sd ^Aj 
IAJ-jl^ O^I^AjCD*!? l-KKjd^ ^ MlQ-» ^-»? 1^01 XLVII. 

.-o^AtdI oir^5 ocn ]lDa^^ .-A^V-^ZIj ^6i ]L] ^o •.l3Oi20 
^-»5Zo ^V^^CLi ^aj.^ •vr-'l^ Ai^Z ooi "jioi ^Ij ^\^ 



1) Read ^__».sZoA^k) ? 2) Read o^^rJ]?? 3) Corrected 
by a later hand into (J>, which the sense seems to require. 
4) MS. ^^^aa,^^ALD5. 5) MS. 001. 



CIIRONTC'LE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 42 

^cnoNs ^ vi^oioj :|_uJcL.5 lA-kAJiZ? ] ■ > n ocn ]{ii^ air:) 

5^01 ^ ^X ^A y ..1Zar:)»5 |j.£i.£iLn^ ^^::(ji h]^') ^ 
IjZoiDjo li-Sir}? Uov;Ld ^ i \s Ji'Z"io -Kt'?Z1 •. odi Ijti^o 
•^£Ci:l5Z -"^jl1 -.Ij-L-..^ U'r^ U^j"! ^ooi ,-J^?1.Ld5 j^^i 

1jiZ^5 OTJ-ju^:)* OOl o.KllJi-!iD5 . .„^J.iiQli. A^] i \ .. ZuLj.jZ]o 

^ I n .Z? ,-^X-.y ]ixCi£D ^Ajo .. »^f^ U'Q.:^! lAWsX ^"jj 
»^j1 looi ,^21^ 15ql^i. oil^n ;»»-.. «r:i^ j^ . ^otl-»(ti4-»-» ^-i^ 
1Aj^o5 otXd "ijoi •. ^j^A-*]? ^-uXt) \is)'r^ ^^o .ZjSblj 
15 ^1 ^->-DpL ^ ^j j^hd .^ Aoa-» ^-»ASZ Q._ML.rD Zooi 
1ooi y ]Zon >Z ;-L.^. ]'>(Ti .L^yL] ^j-2i^ ]]? ..-^j] 
001 |ri\lb .|in>j> ^oou diAXa^LDj .-Zooi oi-iA-il ]j.j.:d.5 

"iL.acD ^^ 1cnZ^5 ^-J-.^Id] ^_.5 ^jlj^ .l-fr^-^-^'l \Oj-DjJ 
20 ^-»-^1 ^ ^ .,^^i.2j "|ooi iii 001 1AXl ..OiZq-C1j.^J 

.•wiOIOlDcLi.^ w^Z-.] yo :|-»-Z^5 oiZo 1 m n^o ^Ld j»»^r)Z1 j^ 
tocn y .<T\L^^ ^i. Zooi taj;.>^ |lQ_,,r)7 w^oi 1A-*_J.£:5 



1) MS. ^^ > Vn. 2) MS. ^?l1. 3) O is a later addition. 



41 FAMINE AT EDESSA. 

loTl ^.SdIASD |j.2)Cn3 .w.a.r2ij -(TL^^QSDO 'O.a.nV^lu jlD^ 

• Ijoi 12.a^» Zocri ctijAjI .•]Zop^V^.o> I^d-k.) Zo^-kA-KjO 
^CL^oTDj ^0 ^oai> ^-k.!icn "|AJi.2)1 j.jj:^ |-4-»5Q-o ^aiiLDArajj 

.1A_.V-»Z? Ixc)^^ Zocn ]lQ^3i3 ]L] ^^.A^oi Ijcn ^-."jj ."jAj* 
1^-..^k5 loon ^cnoA_.l iljcn IAj.^? aili^ ^-.5 ["jojAro ^1 
^k? ^A^ 52] 5Z|^ *o^£D Vi55il5 ]i.5io .^j~^Qd ^ ^-.A^ 
^lo .'locTi |4^ ^m I 1 y ^£)A r^ -Ij^^? V^clo 10 
.H-»5l? 1r^1 ^^ ^-»-2^r) i^^ 0001 ^a-J_*.^^ U.5I5 'oij^-p 
'05^^> ocn .l|j.^CD 1;.-»-kii. aj-:^o'i "iAib? 1;^ ^1 jj^oi 

vXj-*Z"| y .^ "jooi ^-SqX^Sd c7iAk)an^o .. oihd looi A-.] 
|A±^ l?!^-^ ^ T^-»? r^-»ocn ^> n rh Ld ..-AOiQjd^i-X 15 
Ld5 j-i.i-» yi-.1 Uocn l5on\? lAr:)5 'lAuO-*? .,^;nmV^o 

»_>... .^_»'| oo5|i:) ■ * > iV V\n\m ]] ]A^a.>vk1d "ijOlO .UIjj-O 

I^ Qo ^ oil^ ^r2i30 .]A'!S.L lASod-i too-* 5 Vk.o5 Atlsu 



1) F^nrl W^^^nV? or o\«nALQ\? 2) MS. cn^.^^0. 
3) MS. (jyLaiSD'r^i^^') . 4) The masc. would suit the con- 

struction of this clause better; or else write ^001 ^1^5]iD \^S^ 
5Q-KKlirD IrJ-*,^ ^r^ H^'l- ^) "^^^^ ^^^' actually has 

looi <^ » ^ 14^ (^ > 1 ]]. Perhaps we should delete ]ooi as 
well as rn > 1 6) Read Glu^^'ja^l 7) O is more recent. 

8) See above, in ch. xxxix. 

J. S. 6 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 40 

^'r^^ ]o]]'^a\ loan •^] p ^^o? Ijltdq-^ •. xp(n£^a^ 

5^ "jooi ^16 t-a-j] ]]o ly-K. lk)o > n lZ]'i... CD lAro*;!. 

.]jZoV)no ]i <^nn ^ I n iAji-Loo ] ■ 1 V m oocn ,_j-C5^-k»A1d 

^ ^ .oooi ^^ ^ ^^ y? -Vh^ ^ l]'i ^m AjlIdo 

10^r-.t^o vl?^ lAi an 'oLlId ]]L^^ ]L±^^'> li^'ioy 

15 ^»\cn ^? yL^ ^ .'1vm:.A^.Zo l]V)Vv^Z Ajl^ XLV. 
w».-k2.*J5 ..IotZLj w->aioV)K»-^ ^ looi V\ I No ]• i ^1 

20 ^omij^ZIo .1;JL-i,^ ^ iWn ]aSqLo ^'^mi* ]Z5^iJ^ 
;-.Aj ]AJL£)1> lAWs Zocji ]]i ^m? :U^JSso \;o] oooi 

1) So MS. 2) O is more recent. 3) MS. ••msAl:.Zo, but 

there is a trace left of the top of the alaph. 4) O is more recent. 



39 FAMINE AND PLAGUE AT EDESSA. 

] M. > w > ] . ^o«-^ ^oi. l-ii-JO ."ilQ-^jQJ? "ijJlIlCD ^^ * Vo? lio^O 

-.wJuiii:D "jocn y£ibi y»^r-^&i '.^^<T\ oooi ^jildZ"!? ]iDo 5 
l yo n nV^ j^o .oiZa.CLCi.a-c 5 ^ > \c7i!!^ lean "jaliiDo 

i.i.Lb,n\ 0001 ^ I 1 n? :]jcld w^jId Zu-c:) ^^^ Zulj 

'aCL2l£D ]lo i3",LK»1 'Q-kjZ^ ^oZo .^1 O \ V)0 . Ij-L^^XO-iuO 

^j_>jZ;i) A^l? ]n-.Z^ l;nn 0O15 ii-.] ^ *|Zr-»^o .^ooi^lO 

^OOl ^Qg^l ,^r^ 11^ T^ r->-^ r-*^ -^^ ,^ J NV)0 

^ ^ym vn llii "'|]V ^rr) IZlocLo •.^.>jdo, imn ^ ^o An 
]k)Ao --*r>-»1 -->r-»^? oi.«_i5 ^ .^ZUZo It^L^ toAo 
,Ji3 001 ]-lC5VCi ^^ v^ * ^ V "jcoi Z^ I \o .h]^ oiV)\o ■ \ 
0l rlpLS-L ^5 ]i^^ o] U1 :1Zj-^rlD5 IjOcL* ^Oll^ 15 

^ZulId lZwK.)o|o ^1 ."tcZd^iCiO '1Zj...fSD5 ]Ljr^o .]]"t ^fo 
^^ ^ ^oZ .4^:i.» ^>-»5l^o .IZ,: >,V:\ ^\m? ^L] p 0001 
]no ym sZZ^ t^ ^^ooi ^ 1 n^'iSoo ."IjZqId ^-cdo Jj^q-i 
llkio 1rCCi05 I^A-iAo .^ I no yrcLiZ-il£)Z "I'^^^tdo .1;J-.j£: 20 
IZa.^0 .^.^Ldoj 1]1dZ.SZ^ 1Zv1.^5Z5 1^A.Ao .,_*J^qj 

.'ij^Q-k.CD ^lZlD5 Sn^VoV^^ |:2£D0 .^j.!iDQJ ^-kJLOJ'lo 

U^Zl33 ]jZak: ^^ .5>1 oo5U^ IZoJ^o ^^ooio XLIY. 
^ > <7> ^ nAvr> ^ ]Ll^^ . I 1 n 0001 ^-lIojo .] i 1 rinn] ^ 

1) O is more recent. 2) MS. ^..^lJS. 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 38 

-7) <■ 

Zq^5 .mnn , Km on ]^j2. vSfXD ]joV)MpiO XLIII. 

10 ]]'[ ^ro 0001 ,^ I N so '1'r-up1 o^ o^l \QJ^ ^1 -.lAj-ir^j 

—j-HSdJO IZUJDOJ QJLdZI ] » V>nrn% ^ .^OlO ^jZAtqIDO 

0001 ^Z\ i V) .^oiAiLeuj oooi ^-i-^^Jo 1oT-»p ^-lOins oooi 

^rni<vn ]]"> ^. CD ^0.1^^1 po .|^ I 1 K>0 1^ > nZ lI oV)^ 

;-!-.. *ql.2l3 .0001 ^^ > .. <^ L. CO V) ^oZ -.0001 ^;^:ir)Ak? 
15 ^ ']Ln<=^ .^ "UaijoP ^oi^ ZliIj -.lAj-arlDJ Ijarnrii ]sV^» 
l^acD ]Ll^^\ AXl -.lAXi. IjoiI^^Ldo ..^» o i im? ^ i \ i] 
^ ZujAX A-.]5 ]i\n ^j ^oZ . . ,_jlJlLd y? U^^-'^-jI? 
]r'S^ •o .Zooi ] I \V) 1oi-»-p U:i5 \l'jL Zols. •.'U» i ^•'Zu-o 
Zooi 1^ I ^K» .^o i \n cjLilD ^001 ^^n^i 1Z]'> .. m 

1) This is the reading of the MS. in this passage. Martin 
conjectures |15q_.J = (£d5Q-.|, which latter is in Payne-Smith's 
Thesaurus, col. 25, in the sense of nosocomium. 2) MS. ( 1 i 1 no. 
3) MS. ,-ILk.AjlIdo. 4) So MS. Read with Martin llJO^Jo. 

5) So MS., but the context requires the plural. Read with Martin 
lljo^. 6) MS. 4-*-^ {sic). 7) MS. Uo^^. 8) MS. 
A-i]« in. 



37 FAMINE AND PLAGUE AT EDESSA. 

.]n\V) lol^ «n\m j^ ]jQlQ^.cn ^^j ^A£Dla_.5 XLII. 

1^1^55 ]i g^D? Ij^LoI ^JLd 0001 ^1 m ■ V)3 ^^4^ -.U-^^^ oooi 
^ooZo .4-»j-K»l ^'r^L xj^y]y ]jai ]i '^yo ]jZq1d ^ • so .^1 10 
^^Ld rlpJ^^.o "USqjd ]ooiV}\ wj^^ j^ :^,-0 ^ in o^5to 
IZolD Zl1-» ^aiAj«» ^^ ..oooi ^A-».ib "i-ocLa-oo "JQ-^"to5 
^n.*^ Ija^o lyn • ^j oom ^.^^i) .^ot^ Zooi 1^5,10 

^Aj> ^c7i^ looi A-J^5 ^^i^ .>cins\V)\ ^-c:^? Ik) ^'^o 15 
]]o .^^rov-^^ r^ ^--L-DQ-» Wnn IjZL* »^oc7i ^*i-»o .^oil^ 

j-Lj ^^^iD .vOj] O » <^ \V^\ lAj-ijlO wjJLo 0001 ^,V)<0 
.^0001 ^O^ ^.1? OlpK^LD ..A-i-LD5 "U-LbpO OOOl ^ > r^c^<n 

1.^ ^ V ^-»ai\ ^-i- ■ 1 nV)0 -.^-i^jAi::) ^ 1^] oocn ^j-1);^ALd 20 
-.^^ino, 1 cnn^ ]^5A\ ]Ai i.V) oilio Zooi ] ■ 1 no .^ >\ai 

w^^9 ^O .1^2)^ ];.£). ^ ^Oll^ ^iSinO OOai ^-i-CLSLJO 



1) So the MS. Read 1)0;-^? 2) I. e., .A-LLd, for ^AISd 



or «_»A-jl1d ; and so just afterwards <^*^ ^ and _ ^j'^lk. 3) O is 
more recent. 






CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 36 

5y->^5 |k)o . cnZ\ i n n ]1q-k>A "jooi ooZ;-a1d5 > ■ i] "jooi A_»Ao 

o\so Iju"! 'q-L£do .]±£}Oi .tijorjo ]Al .,V)n ^ ,Vr>\n > 

•:• ytLo'r^'r^ cJuZul ^-lAoi? "IjoiCDo .'ciiiD]o n\»^n ^ocicqjS) 
3Z;^ lAj-* ^> 13ti^ .1v.ccllZ3Zo 1]V)iV)Z Aj». XLL / ? 

^]A1 i,V)no V>3>onn ] L.gip ^ • so .^_-i.Ldqj IllbAXAiD "jA-i^lj 

loU^lo .0001 ^jAi] |i-»<^ U)Q-Q^ Oi^L»]j ;-L.^ ^ >V >] 
"jooi Zu"j ^OUi^ lis] yD .^ I \n]o 0001 ^ > \oO-» ] m '^ Vnn 

Ai i n OOOI ^oii) ./lAj-ir^j ^.xAjIo .^icimkiX ^oiX 

Ur^l^ °^ I \ I ^ p U^)a_.5 ]^-^o 1-;£ii* ^ 1 n ^V>o |oq_» 

] I Wn ^Q-io ."jiDo ■ no 1q-^|o oooi ,_.i.ii1d>o > \^' ]^ 

20 .. vooi-*'^.^ ^^i^jZIo .]j-£ii)5 l^^^l ^ ]V)V) i]r^o 



1) This word is no longer distinctly legible in the MS. Martin 
read ^ i S^f) , but to Guidi the reading seems to be 1^-Sd ]]o. 
2) Read Q.LID5 (1 n i| 1 The words arc no longer clearly legible, 
but Guidi believes the first to be ( 1 '^ >(. 3) O is more recent. 

4) MS. 1v-»Q-ii. 5) O is more recent. 6) MS. "jAj-iirlaoo. 

7) Read ]Ai .^V>*^>^ 8) MS. originally ^x.\'=^, but corrected. 



35 FAMINE AT EDESSA. 

..Zooi looi ^^lAk) ]]? ^^ ^5 'lA^Q-»o .]• 1 Vin ^ 

. ,m n > m > ^^ J; .♦]n\lO Zal^lj-fe^ ^-^ ^Q^l ^1^ l^-^l h^^ 

^o V*5CLO ^vV)\ IlL') ^^5 ^iiil^ .''Ul4jacD . nn«V)\ 
JI1-U-21LD ]^ocn.iu^l OCT! Ao .^1 ^Zo t)? ]j^ol ^1 
.55A3I ]7 no\v^ Aj-aykA U-^j ^ Udoi? \]n\V>\ oil. looi 10 
g.o*-^^vn\ \^^ ]] -.1^015 CTili ^rnVro? ]n\V) oili ]].j^ r^o 

iZojjlD , I vn\ 3;^o .0001 ^_-i-r::)TLl> w»-laL^o 1-»-j>Q-ai:. 

mg^ > m » » m l p I^N^O Zali *Dj-K. IjJ) ^C)oZ 0010 XL. 15 

1Vk» riio .lAj-jy^ oj^yScliO c7iAi:)05 ^^V)\ *n i coo]] «nn»o 
ISd-kA .'^vv^V ]1doAJ1j ^r^^ y? -.^ncool ]joi ooi 
Zooi U-^^^5 |-»-»)Q-o Vii-j]? lZo]>,^C!0 ^^.4^ .'\on m\ 

]kLK>A ^^.nso .^Asi*) ^ \^ ^ai2^ ^cjuo . IA^joti^ 

1) This word occurs again in ch. xlv, near the end. 2) MS. 
^Ak). 3) MS. Q-^^ini. 4) MS. liNfeJOTO. 5) MS. 
.o«^ m, \ 6) So MS. Martin reads %ml:i£) ^ , which is probably 
correct. 7) I.e., vr^^' ^^^ ^,n\0 or Ji,^.LO. The MS. 

actually has > *^vn but the point under ^ and the yodh are more 
recent. 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 34; 

] > n^.o 1j"h-»1 Uojiiy o » 1 •o •.vOOiZoj'Z'i l]'i' ^1 m Q^x^h]o 

^cOaj'Q-o --»?fO .^a-Kj]jo ^5y.KKj5 '|Ar'i,V)\ ^tlI^ oooi 
*i:ijZ\r)> ]i^.l j]] .]o i K>> 1Zo)Zy QL^il? ^ i\.l U^l •.'U-»j^ 

10 1^001 UjiD5 Olj-.] OOOI ^ i O^i? ;n\? : ] i \; m .] ]V)S ^ 

o.K^» ••~*r\v v?'^-^ ^ U-^^ .1Z\« I n\ ^oxjuXl Zooi 
^ > V >] ^o .^OTil^ ^cil^ll? Uoj'ZIr:: ]jZq1d ;»»--. ^criX 
VV>Vr^ 5A^5 odi .^1 y^h] ]jZaLD ^oZ -.wjOijo]] 'o\s? 

15 .w»(Jiaj^LD|j5 ^n^roy , • i] Z\ > \? ]j1 :*^rn 

^oAi)] , I iV) A I \n? Ij^-OO-. ^ ^j V»cn XXXIX. 
^5 ]S\ ]J^ .^a-»5l ^r^ tjcn ^5 A_.ocn l^i J-^nv^ -^"-^ 
.A-i-mbl ^^Jr^jos) ^5 OCT! ^^^Ij \yM^ i^AcdZ ]]? . > * g^\ 
."itJ-.y£:: '|4^ ^"jio i^ur^j'l '.U^l jjoir::) \^L ^oai ^m^^ 



1) Martin, Q-LId] ("pour QJJLdV')- The reading of the MS. is 
doubtful, but the correction is certain. 2) O is more recent. 

3) The repetition of X^^ seems to be unnecessary. 4) MS. 



33 LOCUSTS. FAMINE. 

JJJDOI ^oiZoU-^ ^^4^? U^1 -."U'l ^ 1^klD ^.»-^ 
*An.2U "UjI^d CJUD loan A.*]? 1^^^^ jo-i^Ar:) cA? •. ^j^^itdI 

]iDA^l1 ^? ^J"\^ -l^r^^? l^-»-^ l^AO 5C5Z1> ]iDQ-KiZ 

•.,_^cn 1Zo)Zy ^1 's^i^]o \d]o .U^jo] A.^5 too^Al 
qZ^o ']^'r^ ]'r^r^ mL^o .-^(JiQlDy^ ti3] ^A? Im^?;^ 

an,_KKlDO ] " '^ > _1d cnV-wD «-*C7io\s *o^q-» |Io k>? en ■ >;\ 

.^,i£LlI)50 l^nov^ ]j^£DCl-» looiloil w»;-» ^m I 1 ^^jj'to 

^J-.V»^ ^y]^0 . . Ir^r^ U>-» ^\r^ U^'1 ^^^ ^ * 1 ^ \^0 

.VkkSqX ,_jAai 1Zo>Z1> ^(Tuj'QlQi 0001 ,-j-£Di^ASD loioZo 

^^.^ .^Tl\ *CL21£D ]]o \1A>.k.m-kA ^OlZi^loOTJ? ].L^ \i5lO 20 

] ^ 1 V 1 ^ V ^1 5y-K» W? .lAj»» ]iCLiA.«J^ Ao .j-^jdI V? 

*) : > V*-^ . .rnnVnV ,/ 7o ^, \c^O .^Qm 1 > 1 n ^Q-LQ^Q '.]} <^1 ^ 

1) MS. m7]n > m (g^'c). 2) Read y]]^ OOl ^^^ll 3) MS. 
OCT. 4) MS. ^'r^Q. 5) MS. ]»\nn. 6) Read 5CL»? 

The last letter is not quite distinct in the MS. 7) MS. Q-LOIO. 
J. S. 5 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 32 

l^nnm . c^] ]j4£) ^jiD ^01^1? '^? jj^^CLSirD .5Q-L1 ]] OULID 

.^^Zloj ^oii^D 1Zv-i5 ^ .ViiiDQiDj ]V)no'| l^onNno 

"jZoNVno .wiooi ^ V) V o '|Z\ 1 V)>Z? lAri? IZo 5 > "^ »>-^ 

lOlnnoNo -.^Z cTiArpo^ ^ ] • V> •? 'oi5aiQj -.l^yr) ^cnli^> 

.^ looi W i\o 
I » V> ■ n AXZ IZoZ] ,^pM ^;->^1 ^5 ^'r^L^ XXXVII. 
]n .. n ] i V)»? rfiAv.^*-^ ^ot-lSd *i,-K» .1^:0-15 ctl^i \^ .A 

-.wj^^j] ^ioo s^oLo . \^i ,sV) ^_Sd ^iiioZ 1Zj„»sj"jo .]>.KjjiD ,-k) 

20 .-.. io^-Kj? ooi 

.^ooi ^55Z^ ]L6L]^o ]£l^ b'CTLl Ilda xxxvill. 

1) This word seems to be rather doubtful in the MS. 2) If 

m > c^]n be right, the O in Q^,^l\ must be wrong. 3) MS. J>, 

4) MS. apparently OTJJCnQJ, or perhaps rather ai_i5(nQJ. T)) MS, 



31 DENSE FOG AT EDESSA. 



j:ij5i5 .j1d]jo IolILj oiZo in\ W j ngi ^>jj ."jZq_i.£d1 chX 5 
*.^iij.^pL ai>jo5 Zi_ML_lao "jcn? .»-»aiQj._i5 ^^ilZ ^^i^o 1-»jiD ooi 
s^y]^ . ^ ■ V n ^Sd ^m^AkA lib^ 1Z-^5Zo UoZI , i n 
:lAci^ i>oa_» ai^ lAl^Zo ^.i.-msn iljoi lA±-»5 :>aj,x5 ^j;-»Z 
cn3cnQj5 ]1 .t > . /^ %^f^Z] ou-Sd cjijoiqj ] aV)* « » nrnV) I>Q2i 
.ail^ 1oai A-».2i ^].joAk)> taJLl^io .Zooi UJi? tloImN 10 

..^^P |Sda "Ur:oi ^-iQjbo .^^ocji '^;_*Jj oi^ ^2)] \±d(ti 
/ J "jjcjiarD ^j-Xo oi-i-lj^ ]oai wkkjJjj ^5 ^15*1 .^ 1 %• "U^bZ 15 

|A2^uk»55 1Z;-k»"| IZ'I iioi "jloo I n oT-o ^5 Zocn .di As loon 

♦.cjirAk:? cTiZcLilQ^ai ^^ii^k) hario .lAjL_.jiD5 "j^o ■ n "jA^^cijo 



1) So MS., but the phrase seems to be corrupt. Possibly ..aCn^o 
^^^L] h';-^h U9?rk: ^k)>. 2) "JOOI is on the margin. 3) MS. 
j-^1 ol 1-kkSd^. 4) MS. 0^-KKkA. 5) MS. ^^j^. 

C) Read ^4^?? 7) MS. ^i^Q-^A, but marked as corrupt. 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 30 

]Aj.j^^ cjii^> ^4^ -'ll'V w-i(Jia-.ASnjLj ^Tiruj "Iji^L*^:) 
A-il> ^ » V >]1 ^] c£)Za-*o . . I \ ^o ] 1 n5ajD *^j-bo -.l^kL^j 

5 |j1 r^^? >--»1 OCT! |j, Sn loOl ]^}0 .U-K»? ll^y ,-SdZ IoCJI 
1?TLCD ZU-TD loCJI A-.! ] i *^r-vt-^ (^T-^ ^? ^oZ XXXV. 

^A-i-i|2)0 looi jj-ri) A-i]3,' aV)? ]j-»1 .^•V)»5]^ Ij-dALdj ^k* 
10 vOOlJ^^Oj "ioOl "jodl CJLD5 ooi iL-»r-» I^Oj-^o ."jooi L^^lo 
m-^j-TD 'O ■ 1 nZ") '.]} m'^ |jL-» ^ auD ^^ i V) >.m? 1j«-»J1o5 
•Ujo-^Z::.? Au]o .lZa2l^> A^l .^ i i> ^ ^ ^Al 
. > 1 n/\r>^ 001 ] • 1 nn ]Zo.« i|] loan ]o&\ 'J]_i-.,l-Cd t_i^. Icajia^ 
]jL350 1v^^? ^^^ 1ocri A-»l 1] I ^m ]V)S po .ctld 1oai 

A i n\ 1Za.«_3l OtZiD 'AD;-L0 lAi^oij |L5o ] i " * ^ ]vog^ n 

po .]i no i^? ^ctlaId-;^^ I^DQ-yi \r-»-\^N :och Ijoiro 
^ i ^o > o lA.«.V)»A£:o IZqA^o :oo<ji ^ooi-.Zl.'I IA^S IAX*^,^ 

^Tl^tQXDO 0&\ I^Tlib A-*JD \\^ 1 ..l-iAXj m ii ^ ^ '^ 0001 

2o1?cn ^5 wiOi . «-»oioZq-k>Z « ■ nn oio "|ooi A_»]5 V»-j_Ixo5 
.;. Zooi 'A\^i .ro I Npg^o 1 1? odi ]^r> > «-^ ..Z^aAtd] 



1) Some words seem to have been omitted here. 2) I.e., _juDO 
or ^O, as Assemani has given, Bibl. Orient., t. i, p. 270. 3) For 

lJi->\£i. 4) MS. ^■i.^om? l-«-.rO? OlJ;^0) (sic). 5) O is 

more recent. 6) Read ^^)? 7) For , ...]^r)V; MS. n^ . .kVqV 



29 DESTRUCTION OF NICOPOLIS BY AN EARTHQUAKE. 

y^OlZI (TLLk) Q-H^H^ loCT A-*]? ^,V)\r)0 :s^^b j^ '|A.].-.,Sf)? 

],^ n m I ^^l ^ ]J1 :|-il>>jD ^oij-Ld ^jlj] ._•-£) ]Jo ..odi ] i \\n 
5Amn 00C7I ^ > "^V)?? >\ >.3v.k>1 ^ i ii i] ^jZo "iAi-.,lD5 cn\-.5 5 

.001 lA-k^5 ]1 I \ i^Z' ^^^2U ,^0 -Ua? U-»^r^? Ui^LID 

* » M • * * * 

^IAtdI ^ . >mn m V o^ "J^ . ,^k» 'j^LdAcd] ..01^ 0001 ^^ i dV>?? 

OlO-.^ ..'AXsU OirD5 ] > W 0CT15 ].«i^55 ]JA^? ••I'r-* ^>Q-Ki5 

^^2i ^LdIo oil. A^L^^Zlo .^iJ2LK» r->-»o W .^001 ^^m ^V) lo 
001 Ij-slkktd .."jAj^jlD ^Sd ,'n\ ^-iA-i-ii ,^i i Qg^i ^an 
311) .]i)5oi AnViN ]j1 o.k::l«.Sd P? ^i^io .]rl^ ^ A^|? 
,_LQ^uo .ooio \:] ^V)r)0 .1Aj.^ .-»A I^Z] iJo « i\s ^-»t 

vO^-D ^^O -vrJ-^ >^-»1 O^ 1^^L>^Ki:i r^4^^ -lAjL-ijiD ^ t^lX 

.0x1 ZjIdIo >^Lq.l "jooi L,]y ooi Uj]] oiZ^j-il '•^■^^-''? ^-^r^ 15 

p 'c7iij^K^L»lo .'|A±-.y^n\ ^Z1o ^ooio \S\ ^^^o .^^ocd 
"l i . v*-^ n \^] ^Z ^^j-JiCL^o .di > 1 'i m ^oil^ '^ I n I «=^oi 
^ > V > ]n ."^5] a^ ^ ^cTi^J? UiD looi ^ilo . JKq^ IjoZo 
]rr> Vn Ll^L ^ 1^0 O m » ^]3 ^010.0^1 -.^Ail 'Q-m^bL]^ 20 
I^lkA oiX 1ooi U^o . ^01^ looi 3AiiiSD> ['1LA^Z]> ,_-i^oi 

1) MS. yH^Lsn]. 2) The MS. seems to have IZAtd]. 3) MS. 
0*010, 4) MS. 01 > V»>,lL»1o. 5) MS. originally ^ i n^^ Ol, 

but corrected. 6) MS. ^^.kl^O. 7) O is more recent. 8) If 
the reading of the MS. be really 1Z ... 5, as Guidi seems to think, we 
must supply |Zjl»5» 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 28 

]jj-Das ]L] ..Ijcn lAx-.? ot2^? ^? '^] ^'A^ XXXIV. 
^ ] >.^D» ^ to5 iloo ]i > * ^ "tioi 1ocn ^j ^Q-l^ 0^5]^ 

Z^£) 15CJLL£:) A-.I-K.ZI ]Lt\ > V)Z U"i' •.1jr-»^^^>o ^r^h ]iD »^-»1o 

Ur:^^ ,^-»-Liil tor:? ^^^6^ -U^? 1?oi .^ l^^AmlD ]]o 
10 lA-i-oOyTii ^oxo T^?^? ]VV) ^> *-*r\\? -l^^V^ l^M *-»^ 

IotZL ^ oZ"|5 .lii-*V^ ^CnV) ^ ];mMVr.7> ]K..n^mA*-^ 

15 o-lX^Z]? i-A-^ ilp] .Z^Aid] ]5cn ^5 .-vxpoib ^_-».l^ai ^^-i]? 
5^Z]i) ^ A\>n .Z? "(ji > m]A^' wiV^Zto .]'i V)? 1:^0 nV> 
Zl,;-dZ1o ..]jai U^i-i-r:) ctlo 1Z^-\i--»1 ^1 ^? ^^ • • ]-»r^ 
,-1^ 1Aj-ij1d «co I \o ^ o I 1 'Il^.zl:') ..1Za? ]* ^^ oil^rD ^r-o 
^tlXd (Tia_yj_r:) -A Vo k>o .] i NN? en-.. L^^ .A .] A* 

9o]JancDl ^ \^]o .^Z locji A-i]? ] i i rn n] ^ .c7L.>akiL 



1) MS. *-*ji:1. 2) Assemani (Bibl. Orient., t. i, p. 269) and 

Martin have supplied ^^.^Ajj. 3) MS. Q.a^t5], but the fern. 

is required. 4) Martin J_»;rD|>, but P;>o(> seems to be actually 

the reading of the MS. 5) I.e., vn^y 3 p. plur. fern. Perf. 

6) MS. cruel Z^. 



27 BISHOP PETER. GOVERNOR DEMOSTHENES. LOCUSTS. 

^ I ' ^Ojl^ . ^-.Uj 0^5]^ 1Aj_» tjauo ^5 C7LO XXXII. 

^5 ^jAj*] . . ]j-;^1 l?]i? |oj-» i<ii ..]v^.\ ail^ r-»-^^ 
gUyr^gg^no. ^mV) >? «->oia.£i2i-K» ]ocno ..|jaki..(Ti')5, i mn^ 
^ocn ,^ 1 miV)? ^j ^ i\>l .^Aj-.ylD5 lo-^l ^ocnl^ o5qJjZ] 
oooi ^i^] .l?c7Lo ILiOTD oocn QO > sZZ] ^IZcinif ^01^ 

^■^ • /vf ^*w .'^001 ']ALdo5 lAriuvr) ^ ^ ^oi U'l? m-u 10 

Uo^b? Tc-»? U-*^:^^ .fJiLio liloiLDZ AjUi XXXIII. 

ocji ]{ii^ oi^ ,nsAj^ "Ildoj *i4^? •1?'^ 1^^-i-»? r-»l ^>j3loo 

.|iiQjZ ^k? ^Zy 1|-..-^j_cb l^^ip *£L2L3 ..1Zq-2LL-k.) ]■ > n 

]^:lj^^ l^'l^ oui^jij lA^o jjoo .5q-LV^ P? vj^l^ cjuo *^^J? 
. ,^Cn ] I \.t Ijoio .oooi ^ocn "1:^51 ^i^ UI-^j? ji^oi . Zocn 
..0001 ^ocn "iAj-4j-»? Isno ^ ^ ]Ln m i]] ^(ttjo^-»-U5 ^^4^? 

.]jZQiQ£:o \±^::i^ 1?'^^ P? 



1) MS. *^0~L4th-^ ', Assemani, Bibl. Orient. y t. i, p. 286, has 
. >rn . ^nn (sic). 2) The reading of the MS. is quite uncertain. 

Perhaps we might read - > \t 3) The MS. seems to have t^dl, 

followed by a word that is illegible. Martin read (mnVn^ , but the 
word appears to have ended in (j. 4) This word is also uncertain, 
and seems to have the plural points, ^AklOj. 5) MS. ^OOlj. 

6) MS. cJLi-JOjjiJiJ?. 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 26 

|£)]5 ^" H > \ V ^.2L30 ."U-SDj-D ^O^J yOTLl!^ |j-»1? l^'r^ 

^ > mVr»> ^ ^CTI ;„.-. Zocn "ij-.^uL .]] i' y. CO? U^] ^ "jAXajiDli. 

. ^cnA-ijiioj 

.]n\V) ^CDO^CCUI? Ij^^O^ IZ] 1Aj_» IjOLO ^5 CJLO XXXI. 
. . I 1 ii ^1^>]J 1,-K» ]l V)ol 0001 ^ I noil? loOlJ >n<-^ A ^ i^ 

Ijoi looi "jZ] jQ-K^.^^ w^oijo]] "iooi y .IZjIld ^ ^5^jL»Ajo 
10^ I noLl .-] > V)ooi3f? ]j,-K.o"|5 IAjC^^ ^oi\n\ y] ..jjylDa^ 

.^oi\n XiCLKi ^n m n\o .*iAjL-»,iD oiZ^jd 'Ajy-MO , ^ > ^o^ yln 
|LdV I ^o ^)OTJ p ijQ-»viD ^^S(^o .13qai^ ]!^Ao 1^5 ^ 
"joil^]] T^?Q^ r^ ]Z^ '^ iJAri^o Ijoic^Snr^ 'opg^io ^v-6^^ j^ 

l?]^ .n\o lAi i,V)\ 'oXlo |j.^5qj3 ^qIdZ 'ai::;-Do ^n w>- 
cjlIi ^r^ ^oou? 'oV?i olo ."jAn • dil^ "Ikico-ojo 1Zoj-k.> 
^oi\n ^ I V?mr)0 oooi ^ i i . .o . . \i..m o ]j^ ^ )joi Ijiil^ 
lci4ii)1 ^CTiNnno .'IZa? U?^^ ''^ > nV)nno ^^.KKib ]-iibol 
20 ."lAj^yLD? 

1) This seems to be the actual reading of the MS. 2) Assemani 
quotes this passage, Jjibl. Orient., t. i, p. 268. He omits J^iXSd, 
and gives (ZI^Sd and (j,»kjO|5. 3) O is a later addition. 4) O is 
added by a later hand, thus: 0_L^0. 5) O is more recent. 

6) The reading of the MS. was doubtful, but appeared to be 
> n^nm . . . . jCD. The words are now no longer visible. 7) It is 
not quite certain whether the MS. has the plural points or not. 



25 FESTIVAL AT EDESSA. FALL OF BATHHOUSE. 

11 > n^ ^ I rn^,V)o :]LJiLD \ > anl^ p ]m^h ]ja^ ^r-iU 

,n\V)!^ 0001 ,^.^r^ J>Q^ y? . ^OTuoxo]? IZa^njLo oooi 
^oi-.A-»1 ''l^a^joi ^^d] 13Q-C)> .OOOI ^;.Ld1o .^^0^1 ,--».li.ai 
^ » vri:) Ij^oio .]-»-^r^ U^P^? .'lAi-^jSo) ot.->3)oV)S oooi 

]]o «CY)nV)^ ]]o ^oilSDj . « l] "JOOI AjAo ..il-»0;.^ 0001 10 

l<^nm->-^1 ] I 1 mi)] "jooi WnoZvipl ^oiJoU^ %^ po -l^r^? 
*-.oialii* ]1nnV)? ^rpAmV) ]jv-»v»1 ^Sd ^-»A-.5 ooi .•w..a^iSD> 

^tlI^ *-.qJ^ ..oiZo 1 ViKjjSnn 1aiJi\ ]!] .^o^ r^ J^ 
^ ^I^Aj? .-^oi-iAi* oiJl A-.]? ]Lq.\ > 5jo .-Aul-iJ^-. IT) 

^ 1 mV)>^ ^]Z3o ■ g^ Aj-TDO ^^Zj'Z ;-!«.. .mnn , Vrno .^OlZlQ-L 
.^Z ,-L^l P ^.mj] loiZLj OlZo n, i I yi-H^O \\g^i "]A> f\ > o 

.^iiAo Q-yj-^ ^■l-kk!:^^)? .-oiiD ]ooi A-.] 1]l-^j^ l-iLi] ,121^ yi:^ 
,-i.iDii p o^jL]^ ^ I ii i] ^-.)Z J y] ..^ocniV) oA> V) Po 
oir: ^ t \ZALd po .]'i'V) Aj-td? Ii^jAt:) ]A\ n^vn ^ )1d ^ oq 
Ijoio a_»oiZZ1 ..oiZon,-nV>\ lal^o jali «.^oio n .. ^)Z ^.Ld 



1) Read ^..i. ■ ,>.£:i\ 1 2) The MS. seems to have ^ai_» ^JLk> (sic). 
3) MS. Ollr:. 4) MS. Uo?cn. 5) For "iUj. 6) A later hand 
has altered this into ^o. 7) MS. ]LjLcLjt^. Read *jZ5a.«-2)Z? 

8) MS. lA^l^^iD. 

J. s. -4 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 24 

]nni kCici2o ai\-»5 -^j;.^o^ ^,n ' tZo n o ;>QrDo .|x}d_«.£Do 
|]o ^jlD vi?QJ? tic)? ^ ^5 .ctllSd ^i.1i ^oAdo .criJ_cb.no 

1] i' ^ m oocn ^^j-oAoj ^£i\_» '"jZ^l^^CD Uo^r^ l/u:i^ ]'>ai ^o 

•t^K-kA-* ^5] ^j;i^50 jjfkiiLD ^>aa-. ^-ktLD5 "IjTiib A > ^ *-^ 

10^ ]^n? I1.5Z ZaXj 001 ,-4^;.i) ^-.5 jl^ .Q^5Zu»1o ^_.01QiD,r) 

^y^ 'Zooi ]Lq-i_»3) .^ i m V)-!^ ] 1 nV)\ ^ooZ "jooi w«.j_»o 
,n^o .]5ons? "]a^j-£Q Lq.\ n i 1 nALQ^> • ] V i • p |jloi 
:]n • n^ u-»oT-HL.kio ^oiZoJL^j ^JL l-iibo"! ^-^-^Z oooij 

15..^ooi ^i.Z.£ciS£> ^jAoi po .\L»Zo IlkiiLDZ Aj_» XXX. 
.010 ^5|lD "jZo^ 1 jo> lAjiL»Z5 ocn ]{\^'> ]±^] ^ooZ "I^Sd 
^otZ^ "jooi Lu]y ]Lo\i ^ ^ "jZa^jlD . » V ^ ^eicdoIo 
,-lD A->] ■ i in oooi ^1 oNcT) ]\n • IASdgl-i ^,no -.^oial^ 



1) The MS. has ^]rDO, and the first letter of "IZojor) is not 
distinct. 2) The MS. has ^_»]^0;^, which I have altered with 

Martin into ^-.;.^0j^ - ^5a^;.^, Trpatrwptov. See chap. Ixxxvii. 
3) MS. ||a.-^j^-DD. 4) I have followed Martin in adding this word. 
5) The MS. has QJ50. G) MS. ]£^]oy tlj'Z, but the first ] in 
\^]o is a later addition. 7) Zooi is repeated in the MS. 

8) This is the reading of the MS., not ]An » m. 9) The plural 

points are wanting in the MS,, both in this word and in . >rn . V>«-^ 



23 BISHOP CYRUS. .-GOVERNOR ALEXANDER. 

aij.^"io ,(j\LoOr\ ^O;.ib2.]o en ■ ^i ^^^-^^ ^ l^-^-J ooi ]L] 
,Ui^rn ^ (TL^ ]o<T\ »^-»~cil5 ^jSd »^^1 .C7i,^]ri Uj~'^j1 051 

^...ij[D A^1;.^A-. ]}] ..U.*o3 ^k) HdAj oiiDJ ^1 ^? 1?ai 
ly-o lor^?o .A^11l.1i) IcTi^-^ ^^^ ^juiUjjbALDO ^uooi 
.0001 _.j-LLd l^jjib *r:iCD.LD to5050 .oooi ^ i Nn] ^ot-»v-^^-^? 
.A^^^ IZa^Jlo l5a^ .^VA^I ^Viijo ll^o ]iDiiLK.o 10 
11 i' ^ro> ] 1 V so Iji-Li Vnn ]i:iiL35 och lob ^-.5 ,-^Zl 

Ij-^-Si-* U-L^ ^j? loOl .1_.>QJ2LO0 'iAjL_.jl£LO CTLO oo5A£d1 
>^ .Vn, mAVn OOCTIJ .]]\i ^A-3]ib) liJCl^P fco]£D? ^^ > nl)n\ 

^-i5 ] 1 > ^n l^n] . wj010j.!1]:o '"jocn *£i.2iQD5 ^yk) *ocn_» ^ ■ 1 \no 

^J^ ,^TL_.0 .1^-»-2L» "U-juJOf "U^D, ID wiOjl. 001 ^"Jj-iJolj CTl1\.L£D 

aiAi:0y2^ ]L]o ."jjoki^ai ^q-^ixu1 ^^5 ^5A^1 XXIX. 
lAj-»ySD5 "lr)cL» 5^0 .]L±jt ]'>m c7iV)\o ■ n 4CDo5yimn^ 20 
lo^cblr^ ]j-LdoP ^boi ,-*.Jlo? '"jA^'^ ^£llo -.Utdi ^ 

1) MS. ^ >Vnm AVn. 2) The MS. seems to have |£L2irD5 

ZoOl, or perhaps ^001 Aoc^rn^ 3) Perhaps corrupted from 

] » \ >^i^1j Aurelia. At any rate, it is the name of a woman, not of 
a place. The word is unfortunately no longer legible in the MS. 
4) We should probably read jAiil^fcSD. 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 22 

^oimir: 1^5] > lii'tao .'looi A>^ 1r4^^ :^^0G^ Jl-^ 
^CTii i K>? IjOCO lAj-^j.k? ^j-ir^p ^Ti^.oTD ..0001 ^»i-r:)5ALo 

^A.\f^^ALO ']ZcL^£: yOO .Aj|a-!\-. Q-l-*;ili\ OOOI nr^rr^c^ 
5 ^TllV? "ioiIL? OlAoTIOlD > > ^] ^J "|A_»50Z lis)] 0001 

^otjA^I " ^> "JZoj-j-LdtlLoo |]"i .Zooi "l^jA.*^ 

*n»2l£D |] po .OOOl ^ I ^ O »^ZiD loi^J^? ]j01?annO .^0001 

arij-4Z] -.OOOl ^j.j>L ^j\£^j "^"^"M? jjuiiio JTi^J^ ^oiX 

'w-idi-yj-lD "jZ^riiO;-!*? ]lDa-i wiOioA-.*!? :y: > >5p Ijoi ]iDa-i.£D 

10*cili5"io .^^uiUij,-^ l^-^ni.'^o ]^£DjDh] 01^ r-Oj^? .'lAriij* 

Ijoi 1,1jl yD ..^» iV^ ]]? ]jai Ijli.? oi^n..]] UU-^ U-'jJ^ 

^;-^"iz.5 }i.5Z ^o .^^rO ^ "jAj.jyln^ oir^ looi A-i_l:^ 

* 
^ ^ iL5l ^ ^tlI:. ^001 ^,£0 ..Isiij ]jL5A!:i. l^Ao 

•-.boi ^oAZo .^TlJ p ^X^jUD OlA^lCD ^1. Ul£D .l5oiJ 

15 lAj.r:Oy^o '"jA^iL ^jr)o.a no .£Do5q-£1ju4j1^o ]Q4ib]r^ 
IotZL ^ ]L'^Ql^^L^ ]L] ]jai |:^o5 ^_.5 ^\^ .UU.^ 

y^^\^ 001 ]n i \>^ ;„*_.. |.A.a.J .^TIJ0Q^\5 »^-»1 "Z^I.Aid"! 

^ ^clk»5"| Iri^lk) S£)0 1 i 5 ^ 5.IDQJD ]jLr^a^5 |4j.j5^"i 'oipijrD 

llDQ^ U^Ol w^Q-6o .]^ IZ^] j^-.1 ]4JLj5jj"i5 Oll^5 01^^] 



1) For "jZoL^. 2) Illegiljle in the MS.; Martin supplied 
IZo^i g).^r^QjD. 3) MS. wiOI-mJ^. 4) I believe that we 

should read »CQ-»j1Dj;^ (;»oAkD5. Sec my Catalogue of Sf/riac MSS, 
in the British Museum, p. 335, col. 1, i. Perhaps we might venture 
upon a further alteration, and read (Z^DO.Hi • |A*^ m ^^rjX^So 
\j^££lD'i\ &i£^ r-OAO?. •')) MS. originally >Q0 ■ no. G) Head 

Ui^? ") MS. ai-.r-.t). 



21 PLAGUE OF BOILS AT EDESSA. 

IZov^Ld l-»5a-» 'Wii^o IAjl^ ^cn ^5 ^k? .y^^oh W l^r, 

.^Alodj.^ wuooij IZ0ZI0 .-VulIiilk* 
.'vjZ1 ai2i::il ]jl1d!:^q^ Ijcti Ij-O)^ h^ ^r^ XXVI. 

^^5 "ioiZL .00C7I "^4jl-^£d .,yLL£i2j jjcnjaoo ^^5 l^liS 

j-i.^5 . vrHtH^ cjil^ii\ oT-k-llSb p.joQ.-»o .,_ki^a-o-ii ^1^ ^it^ 
^c7iZ^:d> l-i^-^lo .^jiL.2L35 "jAk^Zd:: ^Ij-ID Isqi)? ,^^]j 

A-,1 A^^h ]^i^ ^^^ ^^r^o .U-oQ^ ^jAk)o IIj-^Ltdj 

.w_»0C7I ^uOOl ^TIj.12)5C7I ^-SD j-io j-kkTD "JA^iJOJ ]ZlL!JoZ5 

|r:i|D y ..Zooi "Uiir-^ ^cruJ^JLj 1cnZ^5 ^^^ ctiZocij.^ 15 
"U^o^oro o] iLcaSo ]}o .]\^.^^ ]±^] ^^2] ^^^ looi "jaoiD 
yi.liy_» 1ZcL».k1d> ^jC7iA<ba-» ^1 P1 .]iCL»a.^^ 1oai ]o6i 
oooi ^a-noAji.LD "jZo^-i-^J-^ "iib^cn -.^jlLqIiq-kj 3Ao w^ooi 

^^> ^£D^A^L» ^a^.^ .^ijQjiO IIlqJlLdZ Ajl» XXVII. 

^C71^£i\ Jj.LQ-» ^SD lAii^ r^ .-1501 lAj-^5 ^-^l v>j;»i]£^ 



1) Assemani, loc. cit., ».^-^n O. 2) The context requires 

^^t g^, as suggested by 3Iartin. 3) MS. _ u||..».^^k-X]0 (sic). 

4) MS. ^Aj5. 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 20 

ai\ ^OTiJ ^1 . ^otX 111. "i5Q_L^ ^p.,L_mj5 U^1? -vp^^ 

^> ,_Ld 5Q-0 1oai ' i s m ^^j ^i \ .] .sn^,£i^L] oooi ^-»-^> 
5 |-»OT .o^a-Kjlj Ij] ^Zju ^^ou-ovo .|j.SDoaij5 |lDa-K>Zib 



]n*JZLL jjCiZikii ^^5 ^_icnj-LD ."jZZ^k}? ]Zqj:iu51 ^ LO',L^ 

1Zo,-M|U»1 - *^ni^ "UljIp H-yv-^ ,^ ZwSliiJ ^uOIJLLDO ..ZlkkH^I 



1) Read ;Vrn^? 2) MS. ^(TuJll.. 3) Both Martin and 
Assemani, Bibl. Orient, t. i, p. 2GG, have 1j.^j]o. 4) MS. ori- 

ginally A > ]n > ^m but corrected. 5) MS. OjIi.ZlDl, but the 

sense requires w»V^Zj2D(. 



10 ZAMASHP. KAWAD RESTORED. 

]7ni^^<^«-^ "jooi u-icnoA-il p cnZoX ^.^-cj^ZIj obi 

Zj^ C7i-»A-»15 IZAj] "Ujooi A-»-^ ot.!^ ^nmi 5qjd ^5 ooi 
^^idZ"! (ji^5 001 Ir^j-ori ^A\ A-i-r:iA-»1 oiAjo ^oio . oiA-k* 5 
liiLkiX ]^ i'^ ..Zooi dT_.A-.1 jiillLD Zj^5 ^^i^Ldo .^oiqjdI 

)Q_0 -LdZZi *D;A pO .]Lr^ (JLLlD CTL^ ZoOlO .ZoOl ]-»-J0Ol5 
Ak^Z]? '] .m;g^ oril^ ZoOl j^ ^5 OOl .]• Vn Oliu (JlZv^Tl-i 

oi-lLd ^"t* r^ -lo^ ^^liiilD w-»oiaLDjr) ioa^-liiiri ..]iilikil^ 
^£:Ajo |.?^50;Z^ ^Q4aj UIj? ^^-'I :]j35ai^ ]L.^ oil ^Aj? 10 
5Q-L1 P Uju-k» ^01Q1Q-k» ,_iD oill »^oi-iZ'io ,oiZo"^\^ ^^ 
.-lOio^j] ^iki^ .."io-LD-;^? 12^5]] lZ]j5 ^iJLk) po .^]-» 5 »^_.*i 

.]j_O50;Zl ^^4^0 ..OTJ-t^f iiiQ^i 0010 .w^OlOlDyT) ^ ^j.i-»0 

^yj^:^A-«Lj ]]? ooi ^1? ..^01^ :>oi.*^. p |j>ai£L4\ ^ o^I^-»o 
^OTU ^-»3 J -vQ^'P "in^jjuo? ^j] ^-»r-»Ai» j^ooiJ^r:^ oiX 15 
]L\^ ^o |-i_lDooi55 1^.3^ oiV^s ^1^:^ Uj_kj wj.j-ib cjiX 
ali-K»5 ^-i5 ^oi .Qinlii^Z]? ^ylQ^D ^oil^ vsr-^^ r^^^ 
^ ^-»j-f? ^-»? l-»-»r^ •'^^ oV^\.»]o Ij-Jooi? Uj»kj ^-1d 
p ^^5 ] I V (^ .j^iiA-»"j ^01 c£)1 ^jAoi ^ikL* yO .^,-.1.^^ 
1A^5 IZQ-KKuQ-KKri .|j-1dooij :>cil ,n\V}!!i y-»Ai. U^r-c^j v^\ 1 20 
]Lq!155 :0001 ,- I \ K>S? ^^-6^ ^-»5 l^iLD)] .oiZal \ m 1 nZ") 
^iD 0001 OjXJ-Lj Vojj "jArii ^joi ^^4^ ^oijlLd ;>QnJAj 

^TDk-QIq U-»->^ « a in ^.t? 001 .Oil ^Q-lioA-aJj Q_0, P .Ul^,,0 



1) I.e., ljSD(Tlj]£i, Trapprjaia. 2) MS. ]ciCil^. 3) MS. 

a.«JLoZ(, but the O is later. 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. IS 

*^TL»ZlD 111 oUj p :] I m?a^> U*'!^ ^;^r)\? ^ooZ|-»?oV)j^ 

^^ > V m 0001 ' >\n^n .^cno\s 5;JLD ^,1d (711 V) .OOtIi 

5 *CQ£)15 ^^4^ .-Olll OOOl ^ > l]£0 OlZonNV)^ '|j]-K» ^ 
wiOlOpi] A-»->jZj *^oZ ] i I ^ •^l .^Q-M^J ^OOT >,ii lX 

^oi .^1 0001 ^ > m » ' v> .^oiZonNV)? IZoN i \n opo p 

^-1-^ ^ ljr>^1 ]£li*-» ilOl ]jLOVO ^5 i<LD XXIII. 
10^ 5^iD ..^QJ-»l5 OlZaiD 5Zv^ ,JiD ;-»-.. ]>Vr>m] ] . Vonrn'^; 

\l^] UiXlD ^V)i m ^oi5 0001 ^^ > n^o .^cdq-^xdj] jiAlb 

o^a.rL*] ll'nl? t^lTD ..1>01 ^01 5Q-D MkL» j^O .^OlX ;J2L»> 
^ .V»5Q-Cd1 ^01 > \S 0001 ^pijlDj ^oi ^\Ld .1ooi5 Oli^ 

15 5y-ilD ]A^] *n ^Z\ i snp ooi ^5 .oili o^\,» jdo^cdjI |:A1d 

'ij5,\V) ]j] "jcdio .-"l-ijarDlj lojOn ^ > * ^'^ ? |j-1dooi5> 
^\4^ •?Q-Q? cm i \5 ^^riilbZ] ^^ji-doi ^-.Jloi^ .].A.rD>Q-2ili. 

*>q_q\ ^01-»_3a\4^:U5 ] > mo-^ OOOl '**^:i.«^Z1 ] » m ;^> .> 
Zui^^^Z] y£:o .."l:^-fc.^oi wjOiQ-CodloJo 1]1q^ ^oioyriioj ^i^Lo 



1) Kead ^ 1 \ > nZo? 2) I.e., Ajuii>, for Aj] U^j. 

3) I.e., _j,£1jO. 4) MS. O n a kjZ] , Imt tlio O is later. 

5) This word is on the margin of the MS. 



17 REBELLION OF THE ARMENIANS AND KADISHAYE. 

]}q Ol^ -.150 l\ 00C7I ^j-MLji V? -^^ CJlJ-4^Q-» ^^*-^-i? 

.j^X_»5 1j"| JldSASdo |_»-!iDocn55 *|ZalL»_Kj ]j1 .on • ]Jo ."Uh^I 

, » 1 <^ 7] }]5 : 5Q-D5 Olj.^] A-i-kjZj ] 1 1 V)?] ^5 \^V)» p XXI. 

]1 > XI Uil. r-^ \is:i\i^\ 5Q_o ^ot-lJu. h^o .^oiAjljuOj 10 

n\Vn ZqV. 1j-^i1-»1 vJ3j_»0 .C7L^j_k>Ao CT^ c-iCJIGLO^jkjO OlklL 

|c^;_D5 ;jdAcqj y 5 . ^"1 Wnni Irp* Wo .^ ^,-cii.A.aJ ail^5 ^^1 

]]] .oiXlooi 3p&aV) ]m > ^no ]i I ■ D loon "i^^ ^.i^. aZL 

1 > \> n 7 .]^^ ^i^ ^Kv? ^P^*^ ZqIDj^ Oil i s3 « I « n 

ocn> _Sd ^jAj5 ]^ .♦'-^vnmv^ ^5 1^1^? cjiZqj]i) ^ ^5 

."iaiZL A\^55 'Uj3o1 ^riijo .1) >n? cniPoV)! 20 
oj^k? ^(Tir-»1 A-i->jZ5 ^(tlXd Vi-*j-d ^ ^5 *^oZ XXII. 

oi^ ^nVvM n .^ I «^. 1 \ ^\sj> 0001 ^ > \cno ..c^oioNs 
^o .OT-iAi. w^A^Z] 3q-1V^ y? ]} nio .^oiXjj ^-Sd ln\V) 



1) Better ( > 1 ^r\t- The word is very indistinct, and might 



be read O O 1 V)V-y. . 2) MS. Ol-ij-a']. 
J. S. ^"^ 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. IG 

ItdjZjj Udoi? cnl^ looi A-iAj ^1d ^5 ■ <>V^ XIX. 
^^ I 1 ro v^oZ ^^ ]-0a-^^-lD .^(Tii i' 1 sn ^4-*~»^l '.ctiZciSj-j^ 
5 Xisp'i I0CJ1 It^fO .-^Ti > rooV)i 1o<n ^nV)^ ^ cjlIi oooi 
« i 1 I s*^ *n I •■Kt y? oi-Kj j^o ."jZa-KKmkA "JAjlI'^Loo ^ccllXo 

.•^^^:A ^ cnki^ '^j^Z"J5 odi '.^(tiq-kj"! io^^j cjij^ ^r>n\ 

10 U-k-^0 lrui-*1 ^-iL-yt 5,_» .]^C7l> (JtI^ ^(TuZ] y? ^^i^^ •] > Vnnrn-'i 

Ij-^j] ifeiD Ao .U:^ai5 Gil. 3^5 ^^j] ]n\V)? (ji;-Q_»]] ]^5 j^ 

15 -l^r^ ^^j5> ]"^\V)\ ;.k)]Vo\ o] .1r-LL5 0(fl lo01> ^].aJO 

[^^■3] llnl^50 U-»~»? U^? oiX 1oc7i 1]6> vEil^o XX. 
l^lD? aiA-iJi.5Al ^k}jiD |Sd|^5 ]1V)n .A^cn^ZI cn2^ loiZL 



1) MS. ^51. 2) For^;.o?Zl5. 3) For A-.1Z^. 

4) MS. originally ]ZL»a-ML_lD5, >)ut corrected l)y a later hand. 

5) MS. Xl^Lmp]}, in the singular, apparently. 6) For u^]r^l>0. 



15 ILLUS AND LEONTIUS. BALASH. 

,n\n ^ -.iixn-K*? lAr}055 on i n^ ^j IZonms ^^^^ 
1oc7i A-A U»5o"| 1y-K» ^ Plo .Zocn 1?;V^V) A^Ioi-lIdZ Uyll] 5 
0001 ^^ y oi^ ^nmjj Ij-^-k^I ^jZj ^oi .oiX InXmj 
^-juso") ^^ l]i ^. no ]jLr:)i ^j 3A^ ^Ld .ctiZoi i /\jd ^\i4^ 
^jA^I ^ *£DQ-1L A-k-O) ^ looi ]L:iJ -.^-La^Q-jij oiAlj» 
..^ojLjIj 01 JpOo ^ no . ^ i nV)? yi: ^a nnZIo .^^otIolj 

A-».^ looi Lj] ]n-KL» ^j5 ]joi »^1> .^oiLoij ^ > V >1 ^3 

•lOi^ « > V)0 > n ] I V)ooi'i 
^\ ^5 y»J\ wkkdA^I ]]o > » \nZ]? ^5 5ArD ^ XYIII. 
.^oia^iXKj ] I ro?Q^ ^^ >«X^1 .-»oiQ-K»"| - * V*^ -.Z^SdI 
H^ Aj-Ti ^..Ldo .]i i ■» :>Qj.i5o Ui-tiik5 1r^^ w-iOioA-.] ]joi 15 
y ..]jJiboi3 ] t n • ^ "l^r-^j arLL5]o .o^k^lsI ]] l-iJDD?a^5 
]nSV)\ ^-.ooi "jAiLsuo "Ijvidq-ki ]v?n> ^A1q::i>^ 1-»-^ M-ii 

.^jOia-K»]j5 yj\ Oll^ loOl ]] ^jii05 ]j55Q>1 ] » VnnmV; 2.q\, ^_1oo 
^\^0 .-"tool? Olll ^r-i-J? ^QJ-*1 ZqX IplllJl r-»-Hl 3y-» 20 
^^4^^ :^O10A_.l *aL^]]o *£DQ^ Ll^') "i^;^? lAs^J 

"USo a n ^oiJ-k) Icoi 35A^"i5 ooi j^oijX sdoL "jooi jolLj 

5|-aJ3 ]rp9 ]] -."looi »^;^ ]j.£DV^ A_».£D ^Z? :'^OiZ050j1D5 



1) MS. oA-kkLcl^. 2) MS. A-kkjI?. 3) To both these words 
O has been added by a later hand. 4) Read *Aoj.jj ? 5) MS. 

^OlZo^jiDj, but corrected by a later hand. 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 14 

oaij"|o .]/, 1 .,V) ,JiD ^Tili. ^n^ 1? .,^c7i > \s on .^lo 

^^^ILJO '.] t n t (}j] ,_Sd ^01^ ^CLQ-£1J5 on a >L>Z]o .*£DQ-1L 

Aju^ ^ail^ T^^? ••^^-*-»V^ 1] V) ■ ^^ :>clL ] 1 > 10^4^ 
10 ^c7ionn» ]}o , loj-D> '. ]£OoV)i n l3a-» ^-^^^ .IZll-i^Idj 
'^^J5 'AZ1 .,^qZ^ A-i-£:5 o\V)« Ijcji ^^o xyii. 

15 ^^ » K>na^r) y_^ ^oio .(TiZ\i i,V?\ « ■ 1 \n Jr^L] 'U'^]o 
•.^oiZoL ;.>jA-»l5 ^1 \ >]] ^5 ..oi^'Uj 0,-n i mV)\ oooi 

."ioOl r-*;lD5 . >rno\v \\\\ ^ Zjlb]? OOl ]l CD »^2l ^oA_»1o 

^01 .^TL^ "joai ^'o ]i m K> wjVj^Kj ^ cji^ ];_»o .^1 

20 U.»-K>A 0;»» . ]l m>^? (T!Z05j1q1d ^ 00C7I "^ i \nZp ^^i^lD ^-»J 



1) So the MS. Eead ^^ . >r> . \ ]o. n«-> ^ai5|j (as at the 
beginning of ch. xvii and ch. 1). 2) MS. o\\V)\, 3) This 

seems to be the reading of the MS., for O J^IZ]. 4) For ^QA51j>. 
5) Read A >1.oi .? 6) For CTlL.OTD, and so ^Tl-tCLCD, etc. 

7) One word is illegible here in the MS. 8) Read ^^ i \^dL'> 1 as 
proposed by Martin. 



13 ILLUS AND LEONTIUS. JOHN THE SCYTHIAN. 

\}(T\ OCT ]L] po .w-.cnQ.iNC)ni ^1 m'^nonN Ij-^Zio ^o 
'U.no^ \:^ cnl U^p • ^Q~^ ^ ]^oir^ ' ^ciIjL] ]»n» rp ]3 

00C71 ^j^j-dD cTiX ^1> ^\4Ld .cnlDQJ-O 001 yXkiJ? U^lo 

]. * n aiJ_^i.5 ^sI^SDO . CnLDOTCl^ ^^ |.»^0015 10 

^1 .]jj.^'jli^ ,^-»r^1? ^--^I '-Uc^^? ]jr^r^ ^cnoZul ooi 
^^ l\ xOSi]j') ocji ^ locn »^2L«-jl.Ak) *mj-^U^ w-iOia-iA^ru) 
cnki*> ••Ij.sIio ]^iS^ r-»-» If-^iA r-*? vOOiX loon * ^» ni 
m; Amo\ ^g:)ailo^ n\n ^oiZorz). ^C7i\n\? obi .^^ ; ^ i ^ 15 

^5y^ ]j35aiZ^ IL^ vooil^ |ir:Ak}5 opi ^ 'o1 .UaiQ-K»55 
IL-^ ^i. ^LdAI^ 5y^ ^j^a^ oilD-»5 ^4l^v-&>^ ^20 

.1U^ 



1) MS. ol^^Z]. 2) MS. ^010^^1 (sic). 3) MS. 5^;^0. 
4) For »m-»-£)j~21JL^, as .nCDo] for SO i m Do] . 5) MS. cn.2L*|l. 
G) A later hand lias added O, rightly enough as to the sense. 
7) The first alternative seems to have been omitted in the MS. 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 12 

ooi IL-^^? cn^ "iocn v^r-^j ^^lo ^5 ^o i »i .cnjL_»>C5» 

5 ']j_iTLi ai2:i. , o^Z]? ooi locn 1jl6 ]] i .. ro "jZ^cL j^o 

oi^-i^kIdo .oi-t.-K>V)V?\ cjiSnj5lo cn^->.CD »^1d^o . » l\\(^ 

10 ctiZj^ i^ ..jxoZ^ Za\? cn,\m ]ir);^Aj ^5 ^ y,^] ^a±^] 
^> wiOi ."PIq-* y? c7iZl2loj-o ^\idZl»Z5 ocn ]»- ^V^ ^^ ^n^^ 
^l-K» :>Q^o .cji.o^ ^ 1 ii? .-ncnn *£dqZ^]J cnZ.ns ^.iZu "jjcn 

wkkXjo .] t n > {^]3 l^j'jL "UljI cnZoZi 5j-i ..cnZQ_*«i«o tooi 
^ :>a\ cAj .'X^oj ai^ *DQ-2L35 1^1 y^^] (j\Lq\ .nmi^ oil. 
."looi 16 1 aiX4-^2lCL^ ']] ^5 ocn .odi U^ilj ^AAro] ctiZqZ^ 

20 5p» ^5 1Zr-»-»«^ .oiZcA ^iIjo CTLjpQo^N ^ik)A.«j5 lo. yo 

^cjiZoZ^ ^-»aio i n m 1 1; > 5^*^? CHpO^o .w_»aiOpi"i A-fc-K.Z5 ]] i k* 



1) See the same form in cli. lix. 2) MS. ^\^. 3) MS. 

originally ^-k-2inj 5, but corrected. 4) MS. poV». 5) This 

appears to be the reading of the MS., though ^J is not quite certain. 



11 PEROZ, ZENON. BASILISCUS. ILLUS. 

^c7ioA-A Zj^ii ^r^o .'Ir^? U^1 ^---l :>a-.5ZAlD5 K»-.5 

OiIjD '^;-k»Z1 -l^piljO lA^V-*-^ ^.a-^Aalo ]lD}-0 loOl f-.-.^ 
y ] 1 Vnn > \ liDAO ..>.kOA-»] ]Jo ,-iu^IdZI 0C7I0 .Cnl.-i-K» 5 

'.ilj^l] ]LL4o5 1,\^ A..-K.Z ^1 y .(TiJ^ 1ocn U^ ^ir^^Z] 

l/ n^VVo ^ •.lO;.^)? CTllljJ ^_»5 »«,CJIQiDa-i-0 XII. 

. . V^V ^cTil looi A^1 i-i-^ iAj]ii) .'A.m-^1 |-J^ooi55 10 
^(jioA^l U'CitdI cnmi ^n? ^^4^0 t^Xk) ^aj_.i ZcA ^ ^ fc'N^ 

- > m i > ^^LDO .CTlZonN^ ^ ^ipZo jOJUl i^-^1 ^.^5A^o 

ail ^Z| 1p.fio r>^ U[-C£i^] ..cnZoXj 1Ui[^? lAj]ml. 

.U^lo-L-'JC)] 1r^^1? 'liV^? ^9^-» cjikii ujJlrD ;^-^^ai \n\ 
."U-Sdocti? ^ w-ljAid] 'r-^Lk "jjcnj ^diAliQ-^? 
1ocn |:^rDAlD5 ^^^ ^nr^ ]2JXiL "^H] ^? r^ XIII. 20 



1) A later hand has added O (cirD). 2) We should probably 

read ] :<^ - ~-*^> as Martin suggests. 3) MS. Cl^Z]o, the O being 
a later addition. 4) Instead of the more correct ]Z]j.ID. 5) Read 
^GLom-Amr:. 6) MS. I^]?. 7) MS. aiAo^k:? (.^Ic). Read 
fT\/\\ n ^ ^Ql 8) This seems to be the reading of the MS., which 
has ^-oL, with two illegible letters preceding. 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 10 

5 ,n\» .]-LlDoai5 ,-k) "iooi Wnn? ]^ai55 |j55Q_l ^^ o x. 
^^nj* ^ai5Z1 ^ ]L]'i ..no *|A-»-do50 -.l-i-joail^ lo;^ ^"j 

CTLD^O CJlXa5 ^JiD lo(n> 5j-» ]-l1DOCJI55 ]n\V> ^ 1 > ] \\Vn> 
10 '^t?0 5^^010 .|c:?;0\ ^015 Z] 5 ]lDa-K.Z ^ni > \v ;.oU %^oL 

%-mV)Z] cnZo^lo .o-o^nkA ^i1o -U-C't ZglIDj^ r nVn! o 

OOIO 3j^Z"|o K^;-K»Z] Cn\>-Kj (Tl^O .,^CJIQjQ^jZll^ — »y-^'lo 

^2Li-K» ^Aj5 ..oiZajSgin ■ n ^joA^lo .^j-kj .^ r-^^ZZ] 

]jLri[jiLiD] ^oiZqZi :>acD ,--iJ'^1 ^ > 1 V(^ 1j-CCLL ^5 ^ I \oi 

20(7i\n ^ ]-«-*5 ^2i£CiD . 1^)3] ..(TiZon\V)\ ]j.E) po XL 
« ■ in ^riioZo .(Ti;n\ Q-LQ^o li'oi ■ i 1 1^ 1;-CD-1 5^0 .ollj] 



1) The last letters of this name are illegible in the MS. 

2) This seems to be the reading of the MS. rather than \^50.' 

3) MS. 0;XD1dZ]. 4) Tlie MS. may perhaps have ^ i 1 S(^, or 
■ 1 I S /, but it is doubtful. 



9 ZENON". PEROZ. THE HUNS. 

• U'"^ -^r-*-^! Uo-^r, 1?^^ '^\ ^ 
U-TDjo^eiX |j-Looai3 A-i-^ looi A_»1 lv?l.n ^5 ^^oZ VIII. 
^>cii. "i^-rJO ^(TL^ loch? .-.ALdI "Ijj-kj ^ ^oajAnu? ocn ^*|5 5 
]JLj1 1|Ld ASZ ^ji^riiOiJ j^ ."i?r>^ ^'r^J ]'^^n\ ^ j.-k» 
,^lijo ^tAi^d] "ilioAliZ ol .-^aijftJDjo ^(tlj_»i ;>aL ]jA1L-k» 
] > V)oai? . iQj AiaLDj ]ri^. ]^ o ^.io j^^l ^ 5 qjoi . ^^^. ^ 
y |ju£Dv^ ^Sd5 1j33CLL ^ ^ "I^JLd IctlIL? ]j5?o\n ^^^^cn 
odi ^Ld IZonNv?^ 'okLO ]j.Lq^ot1d r ' u ]"^^^ .^oniAip'l 10 
^(Tll4^Q-» "UiQ^ ,_k:5 ]j5 501^0 .l^ail^ ]ioAo . ]vni 

^l^n-i "IZIjlO ^-sQ-KKri "JOOI ]Jo . ^m7on » i m ^\.^ IciCTIJ 

.1|-i_yLcD 0001 ^^105 ]iD yM^] .OOOI 
^Ji^SD ]_i.£DV£i5 |li2lLD 10;^ .-^N »? m-hi yASPO i n IX. 15 

^[]A±ibl] ila-Jooi ^013 ^l-j-jo Vn :>cll oil. oooi> lo*^ 
IZIj-Lo? lA^^riiAr:) "iooi ]Jo -.IjuLdooij ,_Ld Iriioi? Wo • ]L] i '/. m 

^Ol^ "JOOI ,.0.\ ^CTLi c^Nkj^ yt^] ..^C7l2l 1oOl ^^^ r^ VI 

ZoOl "Ij^i .^n\i3 I^Zy ^; n M :>q2i y? . ^OTQ-»oAidA^. 

V»-Joai ''OjTiiJLj ] > n •o "to^j^ .,ni V) >oiASo\ '|A\V)\ ^5 20 



1) O is in both tliese cases a later addition. 2) We should 

probably read ( > m 1 n or |j.J_^ai3. See Noeldeke, Geschichte der 
Terser und Araher zur Zeit der Sasaniden, p. 17, note 5; 99, note 1; 

115, note 2. 3) Martin gives _ >. J ni , which cannot be right. 

The word is no longer to be seen in the MS. 4) Here too O is a 

later addition. 

J. S. 2 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 8 

cn\ Aj1 ]] » .1 <^ ]i ni ,_k: y] ..to^> C71-i5Q_» wiOioZu] ocn 



lAj-i,lD "^^ , ^^^ -.M^Zo ItoZL* Ai >n U^ooij VII. CO^ 
If) ^-iD .,_j_iji , »^n'»^o ^Z\jJ ^(tll4^o ■ n (JLO Zooio /"Qj.rD v^ ^7"" v^ 

I'JlDZui Z\1 « n 10C715 OCT .^£D;_2L05 *CDQJL-iAa_. 5 OlZolD 5ZuO 
-.IjOl ,^i_^'j ^O .;-Q^ ^,V?\n _Sd j-.Aj ]i I aN -."U^ooij 



1) Read j^l.?©]?? 2) MS. ^ouiil w^'^ClLv 3) MS. 1oou. 
4) MS. apparently «-it;_.i5Z\lD5. 5) The ordinary way of spelling 

this name is » *^ >-r ^ G) QJLC5 seems to be actually the read- 

ing of the MS. ; but I should prefer Martin's suggestion of o\£^ 

(which is really the reading of the MS. in ch. xlviii, 01]-0,) or else 
Noldeke's of OJLO. 



7 THE AUTHORS PREFACE. 

^,\. ] V. 'r^ y |ki>^j? Ijctlo 1cL.L»^iD A-.li-.A-* U-i^ 

^lyj^O mi . o . *JQ.»llD ;-i-^ 1o(JI ALd .^CJIOlDyJD O^JCOlpZI? 
cka oil. .ULilSO ]i «^1 s^]'> y^] -Viijll ^^ini? l^ a i nn 

^> ^-»1 ' VVo^ ^ ai^5a^ ^ 1o(Ti IciJAlD r^ .-^Sblo Ijctlo 5 
ALq2^.;1o ..^ioZ;-. a..cL^? .-lIol ^i. Z|^ ."Ur^? ailDo^ 

^J_-,rSD ^O . ^OiZq-i^kID? "Ij-^Q-kj ^^.^Z1 ]] ,_LQ-»Cl.ycA Oil. 

n\(\ nr\Q a-i.r:)A-»1o oil^Z"!? ^^l^-.] U^^'c^^^ r*-^ ^^1 
1i > rr> ^^] oocno .•'. tt nr^Z]? lA-i-j-;-^.] lAi V.V?^ cio;jMZ"io 

"j^CTI rr^'i «^oZ „ i-\ >lo .^-j-a-Kj) ^^ I \ 1 1 i>ClL ^ a kkJ> 

]1o q-QjA-»"| ^01 ■ ^1 ^5 "l^in^ ..oooi ,^ i o I K>5 
^^^.AjlSd .^c7i5o1 ^ ^5 0001 ^;nrr)> ^cnZo i V^ i6i 
^jUyjAi.? ^iNoi ."iA-..j'^1 IAjJ^^ ^5 j^-.| ]nn,\N^ 

.^■^oi i\\ ^\ ^AnV)\ 20 

> V> 1 ^ • .c^V)vn\ Aj] ]rDi "ijoi w.cn AjIo -.Ir^j-O ,/^\l.^ 



1) MS. o,ri^. 2) MS. 1,^ |]o. 3) MS. Q-»Ud1]. 

4) This passage is quoted by Assemani, Blbl. Orient., t. i, p. 261. 

5) MS. n >^n 7]y wrongly. 6) Read ^'LmJl^ 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 6 

^^ ^ '^l-i.,l .?ASd P') ilD]') >C0o\o^ |jLOCl4> rn A\v^\ 

Zo;_i_ML_jo Olio n i (^o c7iZoV)i mn ^^-fe^ -.^^ U? - ^ -1 

]-LOlZl toA •'IjCT ]V)\s ^ I 0Zl3? |oo .-"jCTlZLj C7Uj05 
.^CruZut] ilDai ^ i \CJI>0 ] » vV ]1^ > .m mAv, » «-^ .r^ >. .>^ nrn 

10 ^ i \ .] ^o . "l^j-o |^Z55 "jZuiQ-K.! ^ "Ijcji ^oi ] > v.. 

15 Zjlblj 5^-.1 "Ipoio .^ 0001 ^ I nnZ> |jJII^o"i ^ ] ^ > g^ ^ 
3A£D ^_iD Ijl^ •-2)"j ^j ^ .^\kk^ .oiZon I ^ ^^4^ 
."iv*.o55 "i4^^-» oi1dZl^Ld5 ]-»5oZ'i ^jl'lo '^.-kLIdo ^i ■ ^iZ]? 
IjI ilb]^ ]S\ ^n^o "i-i-TDjo^j ''^oiZojI-kJ::^ ^5 "jooi ]] 
^oiZa-K.;iD5 ] i \ A 1oiZL 5A^ U^l ./^oUjJ]^ ^r*:*^^ 1<3iZkj 



1) The MS. appears to have ^_J_i 5 5 ZlD, though the reading is do 
longer clear. 2) MS. ^!2l»oZj. 3) MS. 0;-LA£d"|, wrongly, for 

the sense requires w_»v.lZxd1. 4) MS. ^OOl^j. 5) MS. ,_j-».kLd, 
which we might read ^--»-kkLd. 6) MS. ^Ol1Zo3]jv»Z::k (sic). 

7) MS. vPOljJio. 



THE author's PKEFACE. 



Aj1 ^"i? ,_A(Ti .Ua? K^^ ^1 U^ons .Uo'Zlj^i^a-.o 

|jJ:.pi0 .'i:^OV)«\o l^O'^nl ^5(JlAlD> lA.^j^L-K.50 1ZcLi;^5 iKoTD 
^"i IZoZ loCJiZj .OlZ;:^! U'r* ^ • ^? 001 yM±±^ tjOl? 5 

• IA^IJ-mO lA-i-p ]L»JL»L OCT! vn^A^ik? -lA. i .^ 'j;n\.\vn^ 
U^Arir) ii] >aLi<D ocn ,-^2iaiLo .^^A\V)n ]j1 l3arD ^5 (J*| 10 

^C7Lk.l..L ^5(TLQD ^Z]^ A..] 5 ] ■ 1 'i 1 ^ ^OOlZ^J ^ t \ .P ..]j01 

^5 '^ciD .IZon .A\ ^a^;-6Aj .-^ » n^ ^ ^oii^. ^ i 1 >^nV) 
001 ^ --^r^? ^^ i N »]] ^ ».\oi ^ ]j5Zq^ U^? ' " ^] i^] 
^ y^] ^5 ]j1 .jlkiiD ^oiTi U~»-^ lo^^ P Uc^-^^r^? 15 

Uo?V^ ,--uloi ^^1 ^O^fr ? W jId] .-rll^l? ]j1 1^ y IjOl? 

\'^Ni ^lo .-^A^ ^5 ,^-^^]Jo ^ ^aiijj >v»\s ^l]y 
.^j»-^-i 3>A-»"j ^oi4-^ ^^4^? .^-»ou-ij-Cioo ^oTJjmai^ 
^oxj^wj] ^Zci^ jjj ^ .,^ ^001 ^g^NV) y tjcji ^5 a.!^ 
lZa.i^\v> Looyj .;1q]V)\ A-A l^oi ^l .J^a\ w.ooi 20 
•.^j^^ ^5A.«-lD ^_,cri4>^ ^4k?>o ilZov,^ '""^^ ^ i'\V)V> 



1) MS. ^o5oiZ1. 2) MS. ^Qj]. 3) The v^ has in each 

case been subsequently scored out. 4) Read 1 g^Vi 



CHRONICLE OF JOSHUA THE STYLITE. 4 

^J.k)5 :1Z^» 1 VVylD ^-^cill^ ^ ]j1 ^^..^Zj ^i^SDO -UlD? 

"jZoXiko? ]Zo3;V^\o l(Jl4^5 ]1(^0n\ — ,-v Ann<^ "JcTlZL 

IdUld ^^1 ..loiZL? (Jiioj^r^? ;_»-.. "iZoZuA-K» .oiASd^lkkid 

(jvl'i? Paid 0C7I ^-iD ..Ijoi v\V)\ ^A>an« V) .^cTi "U-in^ 

10 1a i n 1;V)\ w-.(noVns ai^ ^OjId] ;-»--. p ^ . \ . . m]^ A_»1) 

^Aj] ^ > n ^J V> p ]v?\?? ."P? .^(TLiAjIj ^^^I ]j-^o m \ 
.,-ju;1d] ^j-* j^^1 ^5 1501 .1^ ^1 ^cnkn ^in^L .liC] 
aZLo .wiooi ^or;lD Zu]m t nrf) ^oi^-^j? IZol i .■ m ^^4^? 

15 i^^ -.l^ZLiiJ y? lV)\s\ oA ]£LaU^ IcTlZ^? C7lZaJ;4±iD ]J 
JjLOl ;_!-.. ^ I \ iln^ .1 a 1 i' 1 '^ ^OiXd? |.Lk» O > ^ol ^5 

Ion ^1 Kj5 ^ i \oxo yi .^ I \cTi yj\^ hf^o] -•r-ii InnAo 

^QJ(TI vSl :AX4^ U ^CnA\l.5 ^^u^O .^Ol^ ,_L-i-SD-i-JD 

20 .]^5q_D50 V2-k»o55 ln(^ ^ "\p?r^ .^i i^Oi n oroo ^a-JS]^ 



1) For \j] ,-LQ_i(JliD. 2) Martin read IjJio^. 3) For 

ZjI .»-Kn ^ V> , 4) The O is a later addition. 5) |1 is wanting 

in the MS. TJic in oX^^ is more recent. G) Read ^J^V-*^) 1 

7) MS. ^j-305^. 



3 THE AUTHOll'S PREFACE. 

^Ld l^jiiZl? .-wk-jeiX-Kj larXy Aj] ^cqi ^^^ ^aI^^:^^ loi 

criZol-.„^j_iii^ Aj] 1o5 'Ujdcjio .^.m^Loi^] ^o].^ p»o> 
, ^ /\ . ^n > vr> ^01 "j,.J"J5 ila"! v^r::Q-Kj5 (tlk»Z5 ,_Ld5 Ik) a .^^AID-k.?? 

^j.-0? r-»-lt U^V^ .,-i-LlD ^5055 ^--iA_.l « i \\ li'ZZ y] .VXjZ 

.AjOOI UshlD ^Zanjt-i-CD yL^Ln^'i ]LcL±^\-n^ :]jai 

vn i>o^ p5 .loii] ZolDj-rD . « i \^? AjOoi ,.£l.^ Vldoio 10 
_j-LoALd5 ^jA_i1 ^-»(ju\:d5 ^i <^ ,^ :ajjcnZ'| y ^ot-iJlo 

AlxoZ w_i-\o -.ii^Ii^ik) »^-a-2lJ ^»^Zq-*0j»2LO ^5 liLDOj .^OlX 

AjI Itd^ , i iV) .-^..cnX 'A:^,-. ^jA^j wi.J-1d ^A^ j^> .-^5^ 

^>Vrn UoZy A-.0(JI ]Uj P ]S\ ^1? ..Vi5 ^5 ^^ III. 

^JIj] ^Q-i? A^ocn|J5 '.^mL^ ^Z]) IZcjv^^o ^^AmLo? 
.w^ju1.q4\ T^^V-f-J yo .•'IjjaioJL^ v,V-6^jAjo ^AoAjj 
C7iZa^a-»5air::o •• - i > v^^ cnZoN i K>.V)n A-»o(ji ^;-*-j^r^o 20 
,.n^Z1 ^J-1^5 ^5 ]jiC7i ."ijoi ^-k) AjOcti ^]A-^Sd ..« i a ^j^ 
]] M-»1 ..«.-» A_.""| lZ\X>^^^ ]j-i)ai ..^imV)\ Ijoi ^cn wj-l^ 



1) 1oai is on tlie margin. 2) MS. ^ASqJ. 3) MS. ap- 

parently yMLa^i^ir:^; Martin, ^Lo m .j^^n. 4) For Aj] Vi^J. 

5) MS. |j500UL^. G) ^j-^ for 5]-»!». 



CHRONICLE or JOSHUA THE STYLITK. '1 

^oV)i> ai,i i \^hV) loa>.Kj05 .^ZuV^jZ] ^->-^. A^| jA .. ]: » ^ ^ 

•toQ-KK^ w.ZaX '"Z;XdZ] 1j>,;-» ] T n kkLo ^AjQ_. ZoSd^^O IL 

A^LQJ ^jql_.5 01 • ^ 1^ wjch .'Ijcn j^_»1 lo? ^5 Zocji }] 

p ^> Zj) .cjiLdj^? ]Zv i ^ • ^-1.^*1 ^j ^k) .-Arj^^ZI 
. . ,-»_3Ar^-K>1 ^« ^1 1 ^-Sd ;-»Zli ..A-»v>-» y « i n ; i ^ .»> ^^ 



1) For Aj] »^ t^. 2) The O appears to be a later addition. 

3) MS. ^jZlLj {sic). 4) The O is a later addition. 5) MS. 
OjJLZid I , but the O seems to have been added here, as in many other 
cases, by a later hand, and is in this instance incorrect, tlie fern. 
^P.ZiCd"| being required. 6) Read ^J? 7) MS. ^LdZ]j>0. 

Martin read ^]j50. 8) For \S\ \^- 9) Originally ,-k»5. 

10) For Z;.£dU1. 






•.j^nDj ^ I N-i] ^oAilj Ij] ^5 Aj-^» -Ir^-^ «^ZqZ^ o^ j n • 



1) Assemani, ^i6^. Orienft, t. i, p. 260, has |J_^1), but it is very 
uncertain whether the points are really there. 2) MS. rn\'^*~>n 

3) MS. ]j>0C7ls\^ 4) MS. QSLM.^. 5) Assemani, o/a ci^., 

p. 261, has ]_fcXDV£iO ]_i.LD0?> toV-^0- 6) MS. ^ > ^^y «> (sic), 

but corrected on the margin. 

J. S. 1 



1 lAn^A^ Va, now a mosque. 

2 Ur^^SD Aj-^5 1Ld5 loCL» and other U^ 1^cL». 

3 Abgar's palace, with the ]'rCiL Aa-TD and "U^oh V^L] 
1^0 V Zu-05, as mentioned in the Acts of Addai. 

4 Another palace of Abgar. 

5 I-Sijbj ^51. 

6 tLi? 1:^51. 

7 U:)5 U^jZ. 

8 ^,^U?H3l. 

9 ^MlCLm L^^} 1^51? 

11 Justinian's canal, to turn away the waters of the ^Kipro's or 
Daisan from the town. It is now the bed of the Kara Koyun. 



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Road to Telld and Mdrdin 



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Vaieyards 



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Road, to TeUd- and Mdrdirt 



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Rough Map 

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Rough Map 

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